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Published by: Rowela Baltazar Alacapa on Jun 26, 2012
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ScribdUploadSearchExploreRowelaBaltazarAla...19POLITICALLAW(CONSTITUTIONALLAW)REVIEWER&MEMORYAIDATENEOCENTRALBAROPERATIONS2001Louie,Carrie,Evelyn,Thel,Gem,Ronald"TAKING"A.Elements:CODE:EPAPO1.Theexpropriatorenterstheproperty2.Theentrancemustnotbeforamomentaryperiod,i.e.,itmustbepermanent3.Entryismadeunderwarrantorcoloroflegalauthority4.Propertyisdevotedtopublicuse5.Utilizationofthepropertymustbeinsuchawayastoousttheowneranddeprivehimofthebeneficialenjoymentofhisproperty.B.Compensabletakingdoesnotneedtoinvolveallthepropertyinterestswhichformpartoftherightofownership.Whenoneormoreofthepropertyrightsareappropriatedandappliedtoapublicpurpose,thereisalreadyacompensabletaking,evenifbaretitlestillremainswiththeowner."PUBLICUSE"1.Publicuse,forpurposesofexpropriation,issynonymouswithpublicwelfareasthelattertermisusedintheconceptofpolicepower.2.Examplesofpublicuseincludelandreformandsocializedhousing."JUSTCOMPENSATION"1.Compensationisjustiftheownerreceivesasumequivalenttothemarketvalueofhisproperty.Marketvalueisgenerallydefinedasthefairvalueofthepropertyasbetweenonewhodesirestopurchaseandonewhodesirestosell.2.Thepointofreferenceuseindeterminingfairvalueisthevalueatthetimethepropertywastaken.Thus,futurepotentialuseofthelandisnotconsideredincomputingjustcompensation.Judicialreviewoftheexerciseofthepowerofeminentdomain
 
1.Todeterminetheadequacyofthecompensation2.Todeterminethenecessityofthetaking3.Todeterminethe"publicuse"characterofthetaking.However,iftheexpropriationispursuanttoaspecificlawpassedbyCongress,thecourtscannotquestionthepublicusecharacterofthetaking.WhenmunicipalpropertyistakenbytheState:Compensationisrequiredifthepropertyisapatrimonialproperty,thatis,propertyacquiredbythemunicipalitywithitsprivatefundsinitscorporateorprivatecapacity.However,ifitisanyotherpropertysuchapublicbuildingsorleguacomunalheldbythemunicipalityfortheStateintrustfortheinhabitants,theStateisfreetodisposeofitatwill.Pointofreferenceforvaluatingapieceofproperty:Generalrule:Thevaluemustbethatasofthetimeofthefilingofthecomplaintforexpropriation.Exception:Whenthefilingofthecasecomeslaterthanthetimeoftakingandmeanwhilethevalueofthepropertyhasincreasedbecauseoftheusetowhichtheexpropriatorhasputit,thevalueisthatofthetimeoftheearliertaking.BUTifthevalueincreasedindependentlyofwhattheexpropriatordid,thenthevalueisthatofthelatterfilingofthecase.20POLITICALLAW(CONSTITUTIONALLAW)REVIEWER&MEMORYAIDATENEOCENTRALBAROPERATIONS2001Louie,Carrie,Evelyn,Thel,Gem,RonaldSection10.Nolawimpairingtheobligationofcontractsshallbepassed.Whendoesalawimpairtheobligationofcontracts:1)Ifitchangesthetermsandconditionsofalegalcontracteitherastothetimeormodeofperformance2)Ifitimposesnewconditionsordispenseswiththoseexpressed3)Ifitauthorizesforitssatisfactionsomethingdifferentfromthatprovidedinitsterms.AmerechangeinPROCEDURALREMEDIESwhichdoesnotchangethesubstanceofthecontract,andwhichstillleavesanefficaciousremedyforenforcementdoesNOTimpairtheobligationofcontracts.Avalidexerciseofpolicepowerissuperiortoobligationofcontracts.Section12.Rightsofpersonunderinvestigationforthecommissionofanoffense.RightsofpersonunderinvestigationfortheCommissionofanoffenseCODE:SCISI1)Righttoremainsilent2)Righttohavecompetentandindependentcounsel,preferablyofhisownchoice3)Righttoprovidedwiththes
 
ervicesofcounselifhecannotaffordtheservicesofone.4)Righttobeinformedoftheserights.Whenrightsareavailable:1)AFTERapersonhasbeentakenintocustodyor2)Whenapersonisotherwisedeprivedofhisfreedomofactioninanysignificantway.3)Whentheinvestigationisbeingconductedbythegovernment(police,DOJ,NBI)withrespecttoacriminaloffense.4)Signingofarrestreportsandbookingsheets.Whenrightsarenotavailable:1)Duringapoliceline-up.Exception:Oncethereisamoveamongtheinvestigatorstoelicitadmissionsorconfessionsfromthesuspect.2)Duringadministrativeinvestigations.3)Confessionsmadebyanaccusedatthetimehevoluntarilysurrenderedtothepoliceoroutsidethecontextofaformalinvestigation.4)Statementsmadetoaprivateperson.Exclusionaryrule1)Anyconfessionoradmissionobtainedinviolationofthissectionshallbeinadmissibleinevidenceagainsthim(theaccused).2)Therefore,anyevidenceobtainedbyvirtueofanillegallyobtainedconfessionisalsoinadmissible,beingthefruitofapoisonedtree.Requisitesofvalidwaiver:1)WaivershouldbemadeinWRITING2)WaivershouldbemadeinthePRESENCEOFCOUNSEL.Section13.RighttobailWhoareentitledtobail:1)AllpersonsACTUALLYDETAINED2)shall,BEFORECONVICTION3)Beentitledtobail.21POLITICALLAW(CONSTITUTIONALLAW)REVIEWER&MEMORYAIDATENEOCENTRALBAROPERATIONS2001Louie,Carrie,Evelyn,Thel,Gem,RonaldWhoarenotentitledtobail:1)PersonschargedwithoffensesPUNISHABLEbyRECLUSIONPERPETUAorDEATH,whenevidenceofguiltisstrong2)PersonsCONVICTEDbythetrialcourt.Bailisonlydiscretionarypendingappeal.3)PersonswhoaremembersoftheAFPfacingacourtmartial.Otherrightsinrelationtobail.1)TherighttobailshallNOTbeimpairedevenwhentheprivilegeofthewritofhabeascorpusissuspended.2)Excessivebailshallnotberequired.Factorsconsideredinsettingtheamountofbail:1)Abilitytopostbail2)Natureoftheoffense3)Penaltyimposedbylaw4)Characterandreputationoftheaccused5)Healthoftheaccused6)Strengthoftheevidence7)Probabilityofappearingatthetrial8)Forfeitureofpreviousbailbonds9)Whetheraccusedwasafugitivefromjusticewhenarrested10)IfaccusedisunderbondinothercasesImplicitlimitationsontherighttobail:1.Thepersonclaimingtherightmustbeinactualdetentionorcustodyofthela

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