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Published by Alan Sia

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Published by: Alan Sia on Jun 26, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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CMOSCMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is thesemiconductortechnologyused in thetransistors that are manufactured into most of today's computermicrochips. Semiconductors are made ofsiliconand germanium, materials which "sort of" conductelectricity, but not enthusiastically. Areas of these materials that are "doped" by addingimpurities become full-scale conductors of either extraelectronswith a negative charge(N-type transistors) or of positive charge carriers (P-type transistors). In CMOStechnology, both kinds of transistors are used in a complementary way to form a currentgate that forms an effective means of electrical control. CMOS transistors use almost nopower when not needed. As the current direction changes more rapidly, however, thetransistors become hot. This characteristic tends to limit the speed at whichmicroprocessors can operate.TTL (Transistor-Transistor Logic)Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) is adigitallogic design in whichbipolar transistors act
on direct-current pulses. Many TTLlogic gates are typically fabricated onto asingleintegrated circuit(IC). TTL ICs usually have four-digit numbers beginning with 74or 54. A TTL device employstransistors with multiple emitters in gates having morethan one input. TTL is characterized by high switching speed (in some cases upwardsof 125MHz), and relative immunity tonoise. Its principle drawback is the fact that circuits using TTL draw more current than equivalent circuits using metal oxidesemiconductor (MOS) logic. Low-current TTL devices are available, but the reducedcurrent demand comes at the expense of some operating speed.Difference between CMOS & TTLCharacteristics of CMOS logic:1. Dissipates low power: The power dissipation is dependent on the power supplyvoltage, frequency, output load, and input rise time. At 1 MHz and 50 pF load, the powerdissipation is typically 10 nW per gate.2. Short propagation delays: Depending on the power supply, the propagation delaysare usually around 25 nS to 50 nS.3. Rise and fall times are controlled: The rise and falls are usually ramps instead of stepfunctions, and they are 20 - 40% longer than the propagation delays.4. Noise immunity approaches 50% or 45% of the full logic swing.5. Levels of the logic signal will be essentially equal to the power supplied since theinput impedance is so high.Characteristics of TTL logic:1. Power dissipation is usually 10 mW per gate.2. Propagation delays are 10 nS when driving a 15 pF/400 ohm load.

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