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InternationalJournalo(ComputerApplications(0975-
8887)
Volume17-No.3,March2011
ComparativeStudyonCBIRbasedbyColorHistogram,GaborandWaveletTransform
D.AshokKumar
DepartmentofComputerScienceV.S.SGovernmentArtsCollegePulankurichi-630405
ABSTRACT
Content-BasedImageRetrieval(CBIR),alsoknownasquerybyimagecontent(QBIC)Content-basedimageretrieval(CBIR)systemhelpsuserstoretrieverelevantimagesbasedontheircontents.ContentBasedImageRetrieval(CBIR)technologiesprovideamethodtofindimagesinlargedatabasesbyusinguniquedescriptorsfromatrainedimage.Theimagedescriptorsincludetexture,color,intensityandshapeoftheobjectinsideanimage.Inthispaper,wecomparetheseveralfeatureextractiontechniquesviz.,Gabor,WaveletandHistogramovercolorandtexturefeaturesappliedinanovelwayforcolorimageandusedforCBIR.TheexperimentswhichshowthattheGaborfiltersadvicepromisingresultsarereported.
GeneralTerms
ImageProcessing,CBIR.
Keywords
CBIR,Histogram,GaborandWavelet.Transform.
1.
INTRODUCTION
Impressionismorebyanimageratherthanthousandsofwordsasstipulatedbythestatement"Apictureisworthathousandwords".Nowadays,becauseoftheInternetandtheimagesensortechnologyimprovement,itiseasytoaccesstodigitalimagesandthelargeamountofmultimediadataaregeneratedandtransmittedindigitalformat.Whensearchforanimagefromthewebtheresultscannotmeettheirsatisfaction.EvenwiththeGoogleimagesearch,theuser'srequirementstillcannotbecompletelysatisfied.Sincesearchingofimagesarebaseduponassociatedmetadatasuchaskeywords,text,etc.TheaimofCBIRistoavoidtheuseoftextualdescriptions.SoinCBIR,retrievingofimagebasedonsimilaritiesintheircontentsliketextures,colors,shapesetc.arelowerlevelfeaturesofimage.ThetermCBIRdescribestheprocessofretrievingdesiredimagesfromthelargecollectionofdatabaseonthebasisoffeaturesthatcanbeautomaticallyextractedfromtheimagesthemselves.InCBIReachimagestoredinthedatabase,hasitsfeaturesextractedandcomparedtothefeaturesofthequeryimage.
It
involvestwoprocessesvizFeatureextractionandfeaturematchingprocess.Inthefirstprocessitwillextracttheimagefeaturestoadistinguishableextent.InthispaperColorHistogramforcolorfeature;GaborandwaveletTransformfortexturefeatureareusedandextracttheirfeaturesfromtheimage.Inthesecond
J.
Esther
DepartmentofComputerScienceManoCollegeGovindaperi-627414
processitinvolvesmatchingthesefeaturestoyieldaresultthatisvisuallysimilar.InthispaperthreetypesofDistanceMetricMeasureslikeEuclideanDistance,Chi-SquareDistanceandWeightedEuclideanDistanceforfeaturematchingprocessareused.ThebasicideabehindCBIRiswhenbuildinganimagedatabase,featurevectorsfromimageslikecolor,texturearetobeextractedandstoringthevectorsinanotherdatabaseforfutureuse.Forthegivenaqueryimageitsfeaturevectorsarecomputed.Ifthedistancebetweenfeaturevectorsofthequeryimageandimagesinthedatabaseissmallenough,thecorrespondingimageinthedatabaseistobeconsideredasamatchtothequery.Thesearchisusuallybasedonsimilarityratherthanonexactmatchandtheretrievalresultsarethenrankedaccordinglytoasimilarityindex.TheblockdiagramofbasicCBIRsystemisshowninFigureI.
ImageDatabaseFeatureRetrievedQueryExtractionImagesImageImage
==:
FeatureFeatureFeaturesMatchingExtraction
____.
Figure
1.
Block
diagram
ofCBIR
Forexampleadistanceof0signifiesanexactmatchwiththequery.Inthispaper,thedetailedcomparisonofdifferentfeatureextractiontechniquesarediscussedandexperimentedongroupofimages.Themotivationistogetthebesttechniquetobeusedinfurtherimageretrievalapplication.Thispaperisorganizedasfollows.Thenextsectionbrieflydescribesthereviewofliterature,VisualFeatureExtractionmethodsarediscussedinSection3,FeatureMatchingProcessarediscussedin4,ResultandDiscussionsareinSection5,FinallyconclusionofthepaperandpresentingfutureresearchdirectionsareinSection6.
37
 
2.REVIEWOFLITERATURE
Content-basedimageretrieval,alsoknownasquerybyimagecontentandcontent-basedvisualinformationretrievalistheapplicationofcomputervisiontotheimageretrievalproblem,thatis,theproblemofsearchingfordigitalimagesinlargedatabases.Inthefirstgeneration,textannotationsareusedtoretrievetheimageaccordingly
[I].
Toovercomethedifficultiesencounteredbyatext-basedimageretrievalsystem,content-basedimageretrievalwasproposedintheearly1990s[3,4].SomesuccessfulapplicationsofCBIRinclude:Texturesegmentationandtexturefeatureextraction(FogelandSagi,1989;JainandFarrokhnia,1991;Turner,1990),Fingerprintsidentification(Hammamoto,1999),Face(LiuandWechsler,2001;Wiskott
etal.,
1997)
Irisrecognition(Daugman,1998),Edgedetection(Mehrotra
etal.,
1992;SuandWang,2003),Directionalimageenhancement,imagecompression(Daugman,1988),Hierarchicalimagerepresentationandrecognition(Jain
etal.,
1997;Lee,1996).CBIRconceptisusedinmanydifferentfields,inBiomedicinefieldssuchthatX-ray,CT,medicaldiagnosisandsecurityfiltering,artgalleries,museums,personalalbumetc.Anumberofpreviousworkshavebeendoneaddressingdifferentfeatureextractiontechniquesoftheimageelementsforimageretrieval.In2008,WanSitiHalimatulMunirahWanAhmadandMohammadFaizalAhmadFauzi[8]haveproposedfeatureextractiontechniquesinCBIRusingCTBrainimage(grayscaleimage).InthispapertrialsofimplementingitincolorimageswithfeatureextractiontechniqueofColorHistogram(Colorfeature),GaborTransform(texturefeature)andWaveletTransformwith(texturefeature)areadhered.DistanceMetricMeasureslikeEuclideanDistance,Chi-SquareDistance,andWeightedEuclideanDistanceforretrievingtheimagefromtheimagedatasetareused.
3.VISUALFEATUREEXTRACTIONMETHODS3.1BinningMethod(ColorHistogram):
ColorrepresentsoneofthemostwidelyusedvisualfeaturesinCBIRsystems.Eachpixelofaimageisassociatedtoaspecifichistogrambinonlyonthebasisofitsowncolor,andcolorsimilarityacrossdifferentbinsorcolordissimilarityinthesamebinsarenottakenintoaccount.Herethreecomponentslikered,green,blueinRGBspaceareused.Forthecolorhistogram,thedistributionofthenumberofpixelsforeachquantizedbincanbedefinedforeachcomponent.Quantizationintermsofcolorhistogramsreferstotheprocessofreducingthenumberofbinsbytakingcolorsthatareverysimilartoeachotherandputtingtheminthesamebin.BydefaultthemaximumnumberofbinsonecanobtainusingthecolorhistogramfunctioninMatLabis256.Thecomparisonbetweenimages(queryimageandimageindatabase)isaccomplishedthroughtheuseofsomedistancemetricwhichdeterminesthedistanceorsimilaritybetweenthetwohistograms.
InternationalJournalo(ComputerApplications(0975-
8887)
Volume17-No.3,March2011
Initially,thecolorfeaturesforallimagesandalsoforthequeryimageareextracted.TheColorhistogramofimageIisdefinedas,foracolorC,,HC
i
(I)representsthenumberofpixelsofcolor
C.
inimage
1.
forcolorhistogram[9].Figure2(a)Elephantasasamplequeryimage
IPJFig,urc_
...-..
,
....
1=1;a.1Q:iQ
E.I~
.E.dit
~i~.....
r~,
rt
I~~~
.Qeslttopy'::ind(lw
Helc
.
tlElIi!iI\;l1
.,
""'=',.~:)~'iI/.
'I~I
0
ll..dl.:d
m-
I.
Al-
'jJ
-!Il-
l)
l
::n-
I
'~l..~
w-
III
J
1
n
r
"
."
.~l
,or
-;~n
=rr
Figure2(b).HistogramofElephantimageThesampleofqueryimageanditshistogramisshowninFigure2(a)andFigure2(b).
3.2GaborTransform(Texture)
Gaborisatechniquethatextractsinformationfromanimage.It'samulti-scale,multi-resolutionfilter.Thetwo-dimensionalGaborfiltercanberepresentedasacomplexsinusoidalsignalmodulatedbyGaussianfunctionas
lj/(X,
y;
o,
A,Bk)
[2]
and
()(27lXBk
'J
j/
x,y,(),,1,,B
k
=
g(x,y,())exp-,1,-z
--(1)
itcanbeformulatedasfollows:where
g(x,
y,
0-)
=
ex{
isaGaussianfunction,where
xB
k
=
xcos(BJ+
ysin(BJ----(3)
yBk
=
-xsin(BJ+ysin(BJ---(4)
From
(1)
&
(2)()isthestandarddeviationoftheGaussianfunctionwith
x,
ydimensionsand
A
and
Bk
arewavelength38
 
andorientation.Theparameter
J'
isusuallyequalto0.5.GaborFilterwith4scalesand5orientationsaredesign.Substitutetheangle
()k
by15,45,75,135and180respectivelyandthewavelengthsare60,80,120and130inequation(3)
&
(4).AfterapplyingtheGaborFilter,thetexturefeaturesofimagesareextractedbyusingmeanfunction.Forretrievingtheimagesfromthedataset,theDistanceMetricMeasuresforeveryimagesarecalculated.Theminimumdistancevaluesignifiesanexactmatchwiththequery.GaborfiltersatdifferentscalesandspatialfrequenciesareshowninFigure3.Thetoprowshowsasymmetric(orodd)filters,bottomrowthesymmetric(oreven)filters.
symmetric:cos(
k
,x
+
k,Y)
exp-{
x~;;'}
asymmetric:sin(
k
,x
+
k,Y)
exp-{
x~;;'}
Figure3.GaborFilterswithdifferentfrequencyandwavelengthGabortransformhasselectivityfororientation,spectralbandwidthandspatialextent.ThefollowingFigure4(a)showsthattheinputqueryimage,andforthatimagebyusingtheGaborfilterwithdifferentwavelengthandorientationisshowninFigure4(b).Figure4(a)Exampleofinputimage
InternationalJournalo(ComputerApplications(0975-
8887)
Volume17-No.3,March2011
Figure4(b)Exampleofdifferentwavelengthandorientations
3.3WaveletTransform(Texture)
Waveletisthemulti-resolutionanalysisofanimageandalsoitisprovedthathavingthesignalofbothspaceandfrequencydomain[5].Animagecanbetakenasakindoftwodimensionsignal;thewaveletcoefficientcandescribetheimagehighfrequencyinformationandthencanbetakenastheimagetexturefeature.Texturescanbemodeledasquasi-periodicpatternswithspatial/frequencyrepresentation.Fortextureextraction,Waveletdecompositionofimageregionsisused.ByapplyingWaveletonthecolorimagefoursubimageswillbeproducedwhichis:Alowresolutioncopyoforiginalimage,andthree-bandpassedfiltersinspecificdirections:horizontal,verticalanddiagonalrespectively.Thesesubimagescontaininformationabouttexturecharacteristics.Tohaveanumericalmeasureoftexture,meanandvariationsoftheseimageswillbecalculated.ThesimplestorthogonalfilterbankisHaarfilterbank[2].
It
appliestwochannelfilterbanksnamely,from(5)lowpassfilterandfrom(6)highpassfilter.Thelowpassfilteris:
{I}
n=O-1
ho[n]
=
.J2',---
-(5)
0,otherwise
Thehighpassfilteridentifiesthetextureoftheimage.Thelowpassfilteridentifiesthestructureoftheimage.(i.e.)edges,curvesetc.Thehighpassfilteris:
o
----(6)
1
J2,n
1
-J2,n
=-1
0,otherwise
GivenanNxNimageF,theHaartransformwillbecomputedas:T
=
HFHT,WhereHcontainstheHaarbasisfunctions.ThematrixHwillbedefinedwiththestructure:
ho(O)ho(~)ho(N;l)
HN
h](O)h{~)h{N;l)
s.;
(0)
hN~T~)h
CV-l)
-]N
39

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