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Matrix Assignment

Matrix Assignment

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06/26/2012

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Application of Matrix in Engineering
Concept of Matrix or Matrices
Let us now introduce the concept of a
matrix
. Consider a set of scalar quantities arranged in arectangular array containing
m
rows and
n
columns:This array will be called a
rectangular matrix
of order
m
by
n
, or, briefly, an
m
×
n
matrix. Notevery rectangular array is a matrix; to qualify as such it must obey the operational rules discussed below.The quantities
a
i j
are called the
entries
or
components
of the matrix. Preference will be given tothe latter unless one is talking about the computer implementation. As in the case of vectors, theterm “matrix element” will be avoided to lessen the chance of confusion with finite elements. Thetwo subscripts identify the row and column, respectively.Matrices are conventionally identified by
bold uppercase
letters such as
A
,
B
, etc. The entries of matrix
A
may be denoted as
A
i j
or
a
i j
, according to the intended use. Occassionally we shall usethe short-hand component notation
A
=
[
a
i j
]
.
Where Do Matrices Come From?
Although we speak of “matrix algebra” as embodying vectors as special cases of matrices, in practice the quantities of primary interest to the structural engineer are vectors rather than matrices.For example, an engineer may be interested in displacement vectors, force vectors, vibrationeigenvectors, buckling eigenvectors. In finite element analysis even stresses and strains are oftenarrangedas vectors although they are really tensors.On the other hand, matrices are rarely the quantities of primary interest: they work silently in the background where they are normally engaged in operating on vectors.
Why use Matrices?

We use matrices in mathematics and engineering because often we need to deal with severalvariables at once—e.g. the coordinates of a point in the plane are written (x, y) or in space as(x, y, z) and these are often written as column matrices in the form:It turns out that many operations that are needed to be performed on coordinates of points arelinear operations and so can be organized in terms of rectangular arrays of numbers, matrices.Then we find that matrices themselves can under certain conditions be added, subtracted andmultiplied so that there arises a whole new set of algebraic rules for their manipulation.In general, an (n × m)–matrix A looks like:Here, the entries are denoted aij.This branch of mathematics is used by engineers and applied scientists to design and analyzecomplex systems. Civil engineers use this to design and analyze load-bearing structures such as bridges. Mechanical engineers use it to design and analyze suspension systems, and electricalengineers use it to design and analyze electrical circuits. Electrical, biomedical, and aerospaceengineers use it to enhance X rays, tomographs, and images from space.
Matrices used in science and engineering

Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix — a unitary matrix used in particle physics to describe thestrength of flavour-changing weak decays.Density matrix — a matrix describing the statistical state of a quantum system. Hermitian non-negative and with trace 1.Fundamental matrix (computer vision) — a 3 × 3 matrix in computer vision that relatescorresponding points in stereo images.Fuzzy associative matrix — a matrix in artificial intelligence, used in machine learning processes.Gamma matrices — 4 × 4 matrices in quantum field theory.Gell-Mann matrices — a generalization of the Pauli matrices, these matrices are one notablerepresentation of the infinitesimal generators of the special unitary group, SU(3).

Hamiltonian matrix — a matrix used in a variety of fields, including quantum mechanics andlinear quadratic regulator (LQR) systems.Irregular matrix — a matrix used in computer science which has a varying number of elementsin each row.Overlap matrix — a type of Gramian matrix, used in quantum chemistry to describe the inter-relationship of a set of basis vectors of a quantum system.S matrix — a matrix in quantum mechanics that connects asymptotic (infinite past and future) particle states.State transition matrix — Exponent of state matrix in control systems.Substitution matrix — a matrix from bioinformatics, which describes mutation rates of aminoacid or DNA sequences.Z-matrix — a matrix in chemistry, representing a molecule in terms of its relative atomicgeometry.
An example of use of matrix in civil engineering
In this example, we are trying to solve for the forces located in the beams.Since we do not haveany initial conditions, we must solve for variables, which is good. With variables we can changethem at will with very minimal hassle to observe the effects. We will apply the loads only on the joints. You can see that we have applied compression forces at all members, and labeled them for ease. Applying the method of joints, we get these equations, labeled 1-6 for the joints they aretaken from: