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De From Knot Revised 1

De From Knot Revised 1

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Published by John Starrett
A paper I am working on.
A paper I am working on.

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Published by: John Starrett on Jun 26, 2012
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Knots and Links in Auras
John Starrett
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Department of Mathematics
When the local vector fields associated to a parameterized (oriented) knot or linkare globalized, the global vector field can generate sets of stable auxiliary knots andlinks. One particular class of knots and links, the torus knots, generates infinite setsof knots and links that can be completely characterized.
In recent years tools from knot theory have become important to dynamicists, especiallythe template construction of Sullivan. By finding templates associated with a strange attrac-tor, one can determine which knot and link types are represented by the unstable periodicorbit set that forms the skeleton of the attractor. This analogy suggests a question: whatis the minimum set of periodic orbits (skeleton of knots) necessary to generate a strangeattractor?The results below are unintended consequences of research on this question. Our attemptsto generate
custom built 
strange attractors, designed to have certain built in sets of knotsand links among their solutions, led to the generation of interesting sets of auxiliary knotsand links. We start with a minimal set of simple parameterized knots and build differentialequations having those knots (approximately) as a solution by globalizing a local vectorfield. This process generate sets, sometimes infinite sets, of additional knots and links whichwe call the
aura 
of the master knot or link.The method is simple: we globalize a local vector field by fitting a set of basis functionsto the vector components of the tangent vector to a parameterized knot. In order to gain anunderstanding of how the vector fields changed with the knot type and parameterization of the periodic basis orbits, we tested many parameterized knots that were much simpler thanthe knotted periodic orbits generated by a chaotic system.Begin with a parameterized knot
K
or link
L
=
 j
K
 j
, which we call the
master knot or link 
. By fitting global functions to the local vector field (the tangent vectors to themaster knot or link), we construct a global vector field, and thus a differential equation,that generates the original knot (approximately) and usually additional knots or links as
 
2periodic solutions. These additional knots
ˆK
and links
ˆL
we call
auxiliary 
knots and links,and the link consisting of all the auxiliary knots we call the
aura 
A
of the master link. Themaster link is always a particular parameterized knot or link, and its aura is always relativeto the particular basis functions and fitting procedure.In contrast to the unstable periodic orbits of chaotic systems, the knots we investigateare stable or Lyapunov stable [1]. While it is possible that there are additional unstableperiodic orbits for some of these systems, we did not attempt to find them. For almost everyknot and link we tested, infinite sets of auxiliary knots could be generated (and for someparameterizations of unknots and simple links, strange attractors, which is the subject of another paper).
I. ROLE OF THE BASIS FUNCTIONS
Given a particular parameterized knot
K
=
1
(
t
)
,
2
(
t
)
,
3
(
t
)
, we would like to build aglobal vector field
1
(
x,y,z
)
,
2
(
x,y,z
)
,
3
(
x,y,z
)
, with
k
(
x,y,z
) =
d
k
dt
|
(
1
,f 
2
,f 
3
)
along
K
.We extend the local vector field on
K
to the entire embedding space by expressing each
k
as the sum of basis functions
φ
i
(
x,y,z
), which may be orthogonal or orthonormal, chosenfrom some complete set
{
φ
k
(
x,y,z
)
}
so that
1
(
x,y,z
)
ˆ
1
(
x,y,z
) =
ni
=1
a
1
i
φ
i
(
x,y,z
)
2
(
x,y,z
)
ˆ
2
(
x,y,z
) =
ni
=1
a
2
i
φ
i
(
x,y,z
)
3
(
x,y,z
)
ˆ
3
(
x,y,z
) =
ni
=1
a
3
i
φ
i
(
x,y,z
)
.
The coefficients
a
ki
are chosen to minimize the error over each tangent vector component
ε
x
=
m j
=1
d
x
dt
|
(
x
j
,y
j
,z
j
)
ni
=1
a
x
i
φ
i
(
x
 j
,y
 j
,z
 j
)
ε
y
=
m j
=1
d
y
dt
|
(
x
j
,y
j
,z
j
)
ni
=1
a
y
i
φ
i
(
x
 j
,y
 j
,z
 j
)
ε
z
=
m j
=1
d
z
dt
|
(
x
j
,y
j
,z
j
)
ni
=1
a
x
i
φ
i
(
x
 j
,y
 j
,z
 j
)
.
over all
m
data points. We expect that in the limit as
n,m
→ ∞
we can approximate themaster link arbitrarily well, so that the global vector field
F
restricted to
K
is identical with
d
K
dt
. Thus, for each complete set of basis functions
{
φ
 j
}
k
,
K
or
L
has a unique limiting aura
A
k
. Of course, different parameterizations of the same topological link can have topologi-
 
3cally distinct aurae, as in the case of a link, e.g. reversing the orientation of a single linkcomponent.We used several different sets of basis functions, including polynomials [
xyz
]
k
where [
xyz
]
k
indicates the usual set of products of powers of 
x,y,z
of maximum degree
k
, and radial basisfunctions of the form
e
β
((
x
x
i
)
2
+(
y
y
i
)
2
+(
z
z
i
)
2
)
and (
α
+(
x
x
i
)
2
+(
y
y
i
)
2
+(
z
z
i
)
2
)
1
. Theradial basis functions
{
φ
i
}
are local functions anchored at
{
(
x
i
,y
i
,z
i
)
}
, where the anchorpoints are usually data points, but can be located anywhere in
P
3
. While polynomial basisfunctions have the disadvantage of increasing divergences away from the master link withthe addition of higher order terms, they can be computed quickly and simplified models canbe easily extracted by inspection. Radial basis functions that go rapidly to zero away fromtheir centers do not have the divergence problems of polynomials, but their computationis slower, and simple “lower order” models cannot be easily extracted. We set the totalnumber of sample points to 60
,
120 or 240, which could be distributed evenly, or unevenlybetween the components of the links if we wish to emphasize the contribution of one or morecomponents over the others.The nature of the vector fields generated is highly dependent on the type and number of basis functions used, the density and distribution of the data points, as well as the relationbetween the parameterization and orientation of the links, and the relation between theparameterization and the coordinate system in which the basis is written. A single masterlink can generate an infinite number of different vector fields and thus, potentially, an infinitenumber of different sets of auxiliary knots and links when the number of basis functions anddata points is finite.As an example, we can parameterize a circular unknot of radius 3 in the
xy
plane by
<
3sin
t,
3cos
t,
0
>
and fit polynomial basis functions
{
1
,x,y,z
}
to obtain the differentialequations ˙
x
=
y,
˙
y
=
x,
˙
z
= 0, whose solution set is the set of circles of all radii, centered
x
=
y
= 0 in the planes
z
=
c
for
−∞
< c <
. These knots are neutrally stable. When the“same” knot is rotated out of the plane by
π/
4 about the
y
axis, and a global vector fieldis fit to the basis functions
{
1
,x,y,z
}
then we get a set of attracting roughly circular cycleswith a small basin of attraction. If we build a vector field from this same parameterizedcircle using basis functions
{
1
,x,y,z,x
2
,y
2
,z
2
,xy,xz,yz
}
, then we get a single attractingunknot with a small basin of attraction, and if the tilt about the
y
axis is
π/
5 rather than
π/
4 then there is an attracting fixed point at the center of the knot. Doubling the number

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