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Social Contract Theory

Social Contract Theory

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Published by Yusuf

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Published by: Yusuf on Jun 27, 2012
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THINGS DEBATERS MUST KNOW
SOCIETY & LAWSocial contract theory
In very simple words, social contract means when people give up some rights to the government inreturn to the obligation of government to maintain social order. This concept appeared since very earlyof society civilization, when human beings were aware they could not live without rules or authority tokeep their survival. But political philosophers who are popular of speaking about this idea were ThomasHobbes, John Locke, and J.J. Rousseau.For deeper information please see this link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_contract 
UNITED NATIONSOrganization of UN
The United Nations system is based on five principal organs (formerly six
 –
theTrusteeship Councilsuspended operations in 1994); theGeneral Assembly,theSecurity Council,theEconomic and Social Council(ECOSOC), theSecretariat,and theInternational Court of Justice.  Four of the five principal organs are located at the mainUnited Nations headquarterslocated oninternational territory inNew York City.TheInternational Court of Justiceis located inThe Hague,while other major agencies are based in the UN offices atGeneva,Vienna,andNairobi.Other UN institutions are located throughout the world.For deeper information please see this link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations 
Security Council
The
United Nations Security Council
(
UNSC
) is one of the principal organs of theUnited Nationsand ischarged with the maintenance of international peace and security.Its powers, outlined in theUnited Nations Charter,include the establishment of peacekeepingoperations, the establishment of  international sanctions,and the authorization of military action.Its powers are exercised throughUnited Nations Security Council Resolutions. The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 atChurch House,London.Since its first meeting, the Council, which exists in continuous session, has traveled widely, holding meetings in manycities, such asParisandAddis Ababa,as well as at itscurrent permanent homein the United Nations building inNew York City. 
 
Further information, see www.un.org/sc/
Peace Keeping Mission
United Nations peacekeeping is a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the Organization as away to help countries torn by conflict creates the conditions for lasting peace. The first UN peacekeepingmission was established in 1948, when the Security Council authorized the deployment of UN militaryobservers to the Middle East to monitor the Armistice Agreement between Israel and its Arab neighbors.Since then, there have been a total of 63 UN peacekeeping operations around the world.Deeper information see http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/ 
NUCLEARNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weaponsand weapons technology, to promote co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to furtherthe goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The NPT representsthe only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weaponStates.Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in 1970. Since its entry into force, the NPThas been the cornerstone of global nuclear non-proliferation regime. Adherence to the Treaty by 188States, including the five nuclear-weapon States, renders the Treaty the most widely adhered tomultilateral disarmament agreement.Further information http://www.un.org/events/npt2005/background.html 
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
The
International Atomic Energy Agency
(
IAEA
) is an international organization that seeks to promotethe peaceful use of nuclear energyand to inhibit its use formilitary purposes.It was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of theUnited Nationsunder its own international treaty (the IAEA Statute), the IAEA reports to both theGeneral AssemblyandtheSecurity Council. The IAEA has its headquarters inVienna,Austria.Two "Regional Safeguards Offices" are located in Toronto,Canada;andTokyo,Japan.The IAEA has two liaison offices, located inNew York,USA;and Geneva,Switzerland.In addition, it has laboratories inSeibersdorf andVienna,Austria;Monaco;and Trieste,Italy. 
 
RIGHTSUtilitarianismUtilitarianism
is the idea that themoral worthof an action is determined solely by its contribution tooverallutility:that is, its contribution to happiness or pleasure as summed among all people. It is thus aform of consequentialism,meaning that the moral worth of anactionis determined by its outcome. Utilitarianism is often described by the phrase "the greatest good for the greatest number of people",and is also known as "thegreatest happiness principle". Utility, the good to be maximized, has beendefined by various thinkers ashappinessorpleasure(versus suffering orpain), althoughpreference utilitariansdefine it as the satisfaction of preferences. It may be described as alife stance,with happiness or pleasure being of ultimate importance. Utilitarianism can be characterised as a quantitative andreductionistapproach to ethics. It can becontrasted withdeontological ethics(which do not regard the consequences of an act as being adeterminant of its moral worth) andvirtue ethics(which focuses oncharacter), as well as with other varieties of consequentialism. In general usage, the termutilitarianrefers to a somewhat narrow economic or pragmatic viewpoint.Philosophical utilitarianism, however, is a much broader view that encompasses all aspects of people'slives.See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarianism & www.utilitarianism.com 
SECURITYCollective SecurityCollective security
can be understood as a security arrangement in which all states cooperatecollectively to provide security for all by the actions of all against any states within the groups whichmight challenge the existing order by using force. According to Inis Claude's article
"Collective Security asan Approach to Peace
 collective security is seen as a compromise between the concept of worldgovernment and a nation-state based balance of power system, where the latter is seen as destructiveor not a good enough safeguard for peace, and the first is deemed un accomplishable at the presenttime. And while collective security is possible, several prerequisites have to be met for it to work.See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_security 

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