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Basu Article on Reinforcement

Basu Article on Reinforcement

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Published by Munna Bhai

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Published by: Munna Bhai on Jun 27, 2012
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January 2004 * The Indian Concrete Journal19
Characterisation of steelreinforcement for RCstructures: An overview andrelated issues
Characterisation of steel reinforcement is as important as thatof concrete ingredients. The paper presents an overview of characterisation along with some related issues. After brieflyhighlighting the mechanics of RC structures, importantcharacteristics of reinforcement, namely, bond with concrete,strength, ductility, resistance to corrosion are discussed. Theeffects of manufacturing process on the rebar characteristicsare then described. Finally, a comparison of specifications of standards of different countries dealing with reinforcing steelis presented. The authors have suggested certain modificationsin the Indian specifications IS 1786.
Steel is the time proven match for reinforcing concretestructures. Reinforced concrete structure is designed on theprinciple that steel and concrete act together to withstandinduced forces. The properties of thermal expansion for bothsteel and concrete are approximately the same, this alongwith excellent bendability property makes steel the bestmaterial as reinforcement in concrete structures. Anotherreason steel works effectively as reinforcement is that it bondswell with concrete. When passive reinforcement (steel bars)is employed, the structure is known as reinforced concrete(RC) structure. In prestressed concrete structure, thereinforcement (steel wire) is stressed prior to subjecting thestructure to loading, which may be viewed as activereinforcement. Passive steel reinforcing bars, also known asrebars, should necessarily be strong in tension and, at thesame time, be ductile enough to be shaped or bent.Rebars are rolled from billets that are obtained from afurnace. Billets can be produced either from iron-ore throughthe blast furnace converter route, or by melting scraps andrefining the same in the furnace. When billets are producedfrom scrap, they are known as re-rollables. IS : 1786
1
allowsmanufacture of billets for reinforcing steel by open hearth,electric, duplex, basic-oxygen or a combination of theseprocesses. Higher strength is imparted to rebars either bypost rolling process or by adopting additional measuresduring manufacturing of billets. Rebars are generally rolledin round section. Ribs are indented on the surface of thedeformed rebars or wires during the process of rolling. Theprime objective of such deformation is the enhancement of  bonding with concrete by mechanical interlocking.In India, construction of reinforced concrete structuresstarted about 100 years back. Plain mild steel (MS) rebars of grade Fe-250 were used widely till about 1967. Square twisted bars (deformed bars) were first introduced in India in 1965.But this was phased out due to their inherent inadequacies.The high yield strength was first imparted to the rebars by raising carbon as well as manganese contents, and to agreat extent, by cold twisting. The cold twisted deformed(CTD) bars are produced by cold working process, which is basically a mechanical process. It involves stretching andtwisting of mild steel, beyond the yield plateau, andsubsequently releasing the load. CTD round rebars havingyield strength in the range of 405 MPa (Grade 40) wereintroduced in 1967. Since then, there has been an increasingdemand for high strength deformed bars.Thermomechanically treated (TMT) bars were introducedin India during 1980-1985. Thermo mechanical treatment isan advanced heat treatment process in which hot bars comingout of last rolling mill stand are rapidly quenched through aseries of water jets. Rapid quenching provides intensivecooling of surface resulting in the bars having hardenedsurface with hot core. The rebars are then allowed to cool inambient conditions. During the course of such slow cooling,the heat released from core tempers the hardened surfacewhile core is turned in to ferrite-pearlite aggregatecomposition. TMT process thus changes the structure of 
Prabir C. Basu, Shylamoni PPrabir C. Basu, Shylamoni PPrabir C. Basu, Shylamoni PPrabir C. Basu, Shylamoni PPrabir C. Basu, Shylamoni P. and Roshan A. D.. and Roshan A. D.. and Roshan A. D.. and Roshan A. D.. and Roshan A. D.
 
The Indian Concrete Journal * January 200420
material to acompositestructure of ductile ferrite-pearlitecomposition withtough surface rimof temperedmartensiteproviding anoptimumcombination of high strength, ductility, bendability and other desirableproperties. TMT bars of grade Fe415, Fe500 and Fe550 arenow available in India.Now-a-days, alloy steels are also being introduced asreinforcing steel. Microalloying is found to be an efficientway to improve the properties of steel for rebars.Three grades of rebar are presently available in India forstructural use. The rebars are graded according to theirspecified yield strength. These are Fe415, Fe500 and Fe550.CTD rebars of grade more than Fe415 are scarcely availablein market. However, TMT rebars of Fe500 grade are easilyavailable in the market. Fe250 grade mild steel rebars arealso available, but these are presently used generally assecondary reinforcement such as distribution steel in slabs,stirrups in beams and column ties.Typical cross sections of MS, CTD and TMT rebars areshown in
Fig
1. For engineering a sound and durable concretestructure, it is essential to use reinforcement of appropriatecharacteristics and quality. Characterisation is a process tocontrol and ensure the quality of a material. Principal objectiveof characterisation of a material is to ensure that it possessesthe requisite properties necessary for its intended engineeringusage. Properties of rebars are influenced by the chemicalcomposition of the steel from which it is manufactured.
Table
1 shows the influence of different chemical ingredientsof steel on the properties of rebar.Characterisation is generally performed by checking thechemical composition and certain specified physicalproperties. The particular chemical ingredients and physicalproperties, which are selected for characterisation, againdepend on the attributes of the material that are importantfor its specified application. A summary of specifications forrebar characterisations as per Indian standards is given in
Table
2.Characterisation of steel rebars is as important as that of concrete for a sound RC structure of desired strength. Presentpaper tries to address the various aspects of characterisationof reinforcement and also related issues, which are importantfor design. Only passive reinforcement bars falls within thescope of the paper. Clear understanding of mechanics of reinforced concrete structures helps in understanding theintricacy involved with the characterisation of rebars.Moreover, basic knowledge onmanufacturing process of steelhelps in appreciating various facetsof the characterisation. These twoaspects are also discussed brieflyin the paper along with issuesrelated to characteristics of rebarsvis-a-vis performance of RCstructure. A comparative study of the national standards of a fewcountries is presented followed byconcluding remarks.
Brief overview ofmechanics of RCstructures
Reactions are induced withinstructural elements under theaction of applied forces. In three-dimensional cartesian co-ordinatesystems, these reactions aretranslational forces along the threecoordinate axes (axial and twoshear forces) and moments aboutthese three axes (twisting momentand bending moments). Structuresmay fail in many ways due to theaction of these induced forces. Outof which, three types of failures,namely, stability failure, strengthfailure and serviceability failure are
Table 1: Influence of different chemical ingredients in steel on properties of rebars
 NoChemicals Effects on rebarsControlling Actual effec property
1Carbon (C)Hardness,Higher carbon contributes to the tensile strength of steel, that is, higher loadstrength,bearing capacity and vice versa. Lower carbon content less than 0.1 percentweldability andwill reduce the strength. Higher carbon content of 0.3 percent and abovebrittlenessmakes the steel bar unweldable and brittle.2ManganeseStrength andThe manganese content in steel is not specified as per IS: 1786.(Mn)yield strengthHowever higher manganese content in steel increases the tensile strengthand also the carbon equivalent property.3Sulphur (S)Present as anPresence of sulphur should be limited as per IS:1786. Presence of higherimpurity insulphur makes the bar brittle during twisting, as higher sulphur contentsteel whichbrings the hot shot problem during rolling.increases itsbrittleness.4PhosphorusPresent as anHigher phosphorus content contributes to the increase in strength and(P)impurity whichcorrosion resistance properties but brings brittleness due to the formationincreasesof low euctoid phosphicles in the grain boundary. Also lowers the impactstrength andvalue at sub zero temperature level (transition temperature).brittleness5Copper (Cu)Strength andBeing a pearlite stabiliser, it increases the strength and corrosion resistancecorrosionpropertyresistanceproperties6ChromiumWeldabilityPresent as an impurity from the scrap and influences carbon equivalent;(Cr)and corrosionweldability and increases corrosion resistance property.resistance7CarbonHardness,This property is required to set the cooling parameters in TMT processEquivalenttensile strengthand a slight variation in carbon equivalent may alter the physical(CE or C
eq
)and weldabilityproperties. In case of CTD bars, carbon equivalent has a maximum limitof 0.42 percent but there is no lower limit prescribed. As such, as long as thechemical composition and physical properties of raw materials are withinspecified limits, the variation in carbon equivalent as in the case of TMTbars.
 
January 2004 * The Indian Concrete Journal21
important in most of the design cases. Stability failure usuallyrelates to overall structural systems, whereas strength failurerelates to elements of a structure. Serviceability failure isrelated to both overall structures as well as to individualelement. Reinforcement plays a key role in the design andconstruction of sound and durable structures for strengthand serviceability.Failure modes of RC structural elements due to theinduced forces (six degrees of freedom) are generallycategorized in two groups for the design:axial force and flexuretorsion and shear.For the design of RC structural elements subjected to bi-axial bending or shear force (along two axes), bi-axialmoments or shear forces (along two axes) are decoupled touniaxial moments or shear forces along each axis and thedesign is performed separately for each uniaxial forces alongwith corresponding moments. Adequacy of reinforcementas well as strength of elements against the effect of combined biaxial moments or forces is checked by satisfying interactionequations.For flexure design of the concrete structural elements, itis desirable to have enough warning time before failure.Concrete itself cannot provide such warning. It is theproperties of steel reinforcement as well as judicious selectionof its type/quantity, which contribute this attribute to thedesigned section. Under-reinforced design
 
of section for bending moment is important in this respect
2,3
. The ultimatestrength of under reinforced beams is computed on the basisthat tensile steel provided is so low in quantity that the neutralaxis is close to the mid-depth of the rectangular beam (nearerto the compression edge), such that the maximum concretestrain,
ε
cu
, is attained simultaneously when the tensile rebar isyielded
3,4
. The concept of under reinforced design of beam of singly reinforced section is explained in
Fig
2. The maximumallowable strain in concrete,
ε
cu
, under flexure is limited to0.0035 as per IS 456 : 2000
5
. Strain in rebar at the limit state of collapse could be more and there is no restriction on itsmaximum value. This implies that the reinforcing steel shouldhave high capability of elongation after yielding. This is avery important characteristic of reinforcing steel for under-reinforced design.The concept of under-reinforced section is important forachieving ductile design of structure. One of the importantapplications of ductile design is the aseismic design of thestructures
6
. Structures are expected to experience more severeground motion than the one specified in codes for design.Utilising ductile behaviour of the structure is therefore mostdesirable as this enables the structure to withstand highershocks without collapse. Considering this, IS 1893, has laiddown regulations so that the structure shall suffer only adesired level of damage during earthquake of all magnitudes
7
.Rather, the objective is to ensure that, as far as possible,structures are able to respond without much structuraldamage to shocks of moderate intensities, and withoutcollapse to shocks of high intensities.Shear failure is a brittle type of failure and occurs withoutwarning. Such type of failure should be avoided as far aspossible by appropriate design measures. In the shear design,reinforcement is restrained from yielding.The basic principle behind the design of a RC structure isto achieve ductile rather than brittle failure of the structure.Ductility refers to a structure’s ability to undergo largedeformation before failure and dissipate more energy. Thismeans that the structure will not fail without sufficient priorwarning, and will be capable of large plastic deformations atnear maximum load-carrying capacity. Concrete is
Table 2: Summary of specifications for rebar characterisation
 NoCharacteristicsSpecification
1.Chemical composition(a)Mild steelIS 2026
14
(i)CarbonDia
20mmDia > 20mm(ii)Sulfur(iii)Phosphorus(b)High strength deformed barsIS 1786
1
(i)Carbon(ii)Sulfur(iii)Phosphorus2.Mechanical properties(a)Mild steelIS 432
15
 /IS 2026
14
(i)Ultimate tensile strength(ii)Yield stressDia
20mmDia > 20mm(iii)Elongation(b)High strength deformed barsIS 1786
1
(i)0.2 percent proof stress(ii)Ultimate strength(iii)Elongation gauge length 5.65
A3.BendabilityIS 1786
1
/ IS 432
15
4.Tolerance of nominal massDia
10mm± 7 percent per metre run10
Dia
16± 5 percent per metre runDia > 16mm± 3 percent per meter run5.Ribs of high strength deformed barsIS 1786
1
 Note:
Sampling for quality control should satisfy the requirements of IS 10790

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