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Rahman Et Al

Rahman Et Al

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Published by: AK Harshan on Jun 27, 2012
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International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 6(14), pp. 3539-3550, 18 July, 2011Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/IJPSISSN 1992 - 1950 ©2011 Academic Journals
 
Full Length Research Paper 
 
Thermodynamic performance analysis of gas-turbinepower-plant
M. M. Rahman
1,2
, Thamir K. Ibrahim
1
* and Ahmed N. Abdalla
3
 
1
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Tun Razak Highway, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan,Pahang, Malaysia
2
Automotive Engineering Centre, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Tun Razak Highway, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang,Malaysia
3
Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Tun Razak Highway, 26300 Gambang,Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.
Accepted 04 April, 2011
 
This paper was presented the parametric study of thermodynamic performance on gas turbine powerplant. The variation of operating conditions (compression ratio, turbine inlet and exhaust temperature,air to fuel ratio, isentropic compressor and turbine efficiency, and ambient temperature) on theperformance of gas turbine (thermal efficiency, compressor work, power, specific fuel consumption,heat rate) were investigated. The analytical formula for the specific work and efficiency were derivedand analyzed. The programming of performance model for gas turbine was developed utilizing theMATLAB software. The results show that the compression ratio, ambient temperature, air to fuel ratioas well as the isentropic efficiencies are strongly influence on the thermal efficiency. In addition, thethermal efficiency and power output decreases linearly with increase of the ambient temperature and airto fuel ratio. However, the specific fuel consumption and heat rate increases linearly with increase ofboth ambient temperature and air to fuel ratio. Thus the thermodynamic parameters on cycleperformance are economically feasible and beneficial for the gas turbine operations.Key words:
Gas turbine, compression ratio, air to fuel ratio, thermal efficiency, power, turbine inlet temperature.
INTRODUCTION
 The gas turbine (GT) performance is affected bycomponent efficiencies and turbine working temperature.The effect of temperature is very predominant for every56°C increase in temperature; the work output increasesapproximately 10% and gives about 1.5% increase inefficiency (Johnke and Mast, 2002). Overall efficiency ofthe gas turbine cycle depends primarily upon thepressure ratio of the compressor. It is important to realizethat in the gas turbine the processes of compression,combustion and expansion do not occur in a singlecomponent as they occurred in a reciprocating engine.It is well known that the performance can be qualified
*Corresponding author. E-mail: thamirmathcad@yahoo.com.
 with respect to its efficiency, power output, specific fuelconsumption as well as work ratio. There are severalparameters that affect its performance including the com-pressor compression ratio, combustion inlet temperatureand turbine inlet temperature (TIT) (Mahmood and Mahdi,2009, Rahman et al., 2010). Taniquchi and Miyamae(2000) were carried out the study on the effects ofambient temperature, ambient pressure as well as thetemperature of exhaust gases on performance of gasturbine as shown in Figure 1. There is an obvious drop inthe power output as the ambient air temperatureincreases, if an increase of intake air ambienttemperature from ISO condition 15 to 30°C which is 10%decrease in the net power output. This is particularlyrelevant in tropical climates where the temperature varies25 to 35°C throughout the year (Boonnasa et al., 2006).
 
 
3540 Int. J. Phys. Sci.
010203040508090100110
Exhaust Temperature (C)Exhaust Flow (t/h)Power Output (MW)Heat Rate (kJ/kWh)
Ambient temperature (°C)
   P  e  r  c  e  n   t  a  g  e  o   f   d  e  s   i  g  n  o  u   t  p  u   t   (   %   )
 
 
(°C)
Exhaust TemperatureExhaust Flow (t/h)Power Output (MW)Heat Rate (kJ/kWh)
 
Figure 1.
Effect of ambient temperature on gas turbine performance.Source: Taniquchi and Miyamae, 2000.
The mainly fashionable way to improve the capacity ofthe combined cycle power plant is to lower the intake airtemperature to around 15°C (ISO) and relative humidity(RH) of 100% before entering the air compressor of thegas turbine (Mohanty and Paloso, 1995; Ibrahim et al.,2010). Usually, the operation conditions for the gasturbine module are measured to calculate the outputpower and the efficiency (Horlock et al., 2003). Howeverin many cases, the estimated parameters are not alwaysoptimal inside the gas turbine. It is required to control theinput parameters with the aim of enhancing theperformance of gas turbine. Obviously, these parametershave been actually improved by various gas turbinemanufactures as mentioned above. Meanwhile, theoperating parameters including the compression ratio,ambient temperature, air to fuel ratio, turbine inlettemperature, and both compressor and turbineefficiencies on the performance of gas turbine powerplant were carried out. Consequently, a parametric studyon the effect of operation conditions requires managingthe operation conditions of the system. Thus, the aim ofthe present work is to develop a strategy to determine theperformance of gas turbine power plant utilizing the effectof operating conditions.
THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF GAS TURBINE
The first practical success was obtained by the Societe Anonymedes Turbomoteurs French Company, which built a gas turbine in1905. This engine, the first constant pressure gas turbine to rununder its own power, had an efficiency of 3% which is used into theengine with multistage centrifugal compressor (20 stages or more)having a pressure ratio of 4 and compressor efficiency not morethan 60% as well as the maximum gas temperature was about393ºC. However there was an elapse of many years, until in 1939,a Brown Boveri (BBC) unit for emergency electrical-power supplywas put into operation in Neuchatel, Switzerland (Figure 2). Thepower output was 4000 kW and efficiency of 18%. The turbine withinlet temperature 550°C was provided 15,400 kW at 3000 rpm(Zurcher et al., 1988).Basically, the gas turbine power plants consist of fourcomponents including the compressor, combustion chamber (CC),turbine and generator. A schematic diagram for a simple gasturbine is shown in Figure 3. The fresh atmospheric air is drawn intothe circuit continuously and energy is added by the combustion ofthe fuel in the working fluid itself. The products of combustion areexpanded through the turbine which produces the work and finallydischarges to the atmosphere.It is assumed that the compressor efficiency and the turbineefficiency are represented
c
η 
and
η 
respectively. The ideal andactual processes on the temperature-entropy diagram arerepresented in full and dashed line respectively as shown in (Figure4) (Al-Sayed, 2008).The compressor compression ratio (
 p
) can be defined as (Al-Sayed, 2008):
12
 p p
 p
=
(1)where
1
 p
and
2
 p
 are compressor inlet and outlet air pressure,
 
 
Figure 2.
World’s first industrial gas turbine set with singlecombustor (Zurcher et al., 1988).
4
CC
Compressor
 
Turbine321
Air
 
FuelExhaust
G
W
shaft
Figure 3.
The schematic diagram for a simple gas turbine.
Figure 4.
Temperature-Entropy diagram for gas turbine.
Rahman et al. 3541
respectively.The isentropic efficiency for compressor and turbine in the rangeof 85 to 90% is expressed as (Rahman et al., 2011):
1212
s
=
η 
(2)where T
1
and T
2
are compressor inlet and outlet air temperaturerespectively, and T
2s
compressor isentropic out let temperature.The final temperature of the compressor is calculated fromEquation (3) (Rahman et al., 2010):
    
+=
c p
aa
η 
γ  γ  
11
112
(3)Therefore it can be simplified these relations by Equation (4):
and  Rpa
c p
aa
η 
γ  γ  
1
1
=
    
=
gg
 p
 Rpg
γ  γ  
1
)(11
(4)where
4.1
=
a
γ  
and
33.1
=
g
γ  
.The work of the compressor (
c
) when blade cooling is not takeninto account can be calculated as:
m pacm p pac
 Rpac
aa
η η η 
γ  γ  
××=×
    
×=
111
1
(5)where
 pa
is the specific heat of air which can be fitted byEquation (6) for the range of 200K<T<800K (R) and
m
η 
is themechanical efficiency of the compressor and turbine (Rahman et al.,2011):
41037243
107632.3102399.4109843.113784.0100189.1
aaaa pa
××+×+×=
(6)where
2
12
a
=
in Kelvin.The specific heat of flue gas (
 pg
) is given by Naradasu et al.(2007):
39263
107363.110045.4103127.28083.1
 pg
××+×=
(7)

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