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{Physics}.0010

{Physics}.0010

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28.6.ConductorsinElectrostaticEquilibrium869
DEMO:Purchasefromwww.A-PDF.comtoremovethewatermark
EXAMPLE28.6
Theelectricfieldofaplane
of
charge
UseGauss'slawtofindtheelectricfieldofaninfiniteplaneofchargewithsurfacechargedensity
(C/m2)
"I.
MODEL
Auniformlychargedflatelectrodecanbemodeledasaninfiniteplaneofcharge.
VISUALIZEFIGURE28.27
showsauniformlychargedplanewithsurfacechargedensity
"I.
Wewillassumethattheplaneextendsinfinitelyfar
in
alldirections,althoughweobviouslyhavetoshow"edges"inourdrawing.Theplanarsymmetryallowstheelectricfieldtopointonlystraighttowardorawayfromtheplane.Withthisinmind,chooseasaGaussiansurfaceacylinderwithlength
L
andfacesofarea
A
centeredontheplaneofcharge.Althoughwe'vedrawnthemascircular,theshapeofthefacesisnotrelevant.
FIGURE28.27
TheGaussiansurfaceextendstobothsidesofaplaneofcharge.
Infiniteplaneofcharge
L
SOLVE
Theelectricfieldisperpendiculartobothfacesofthecylinder,sothetotalfluxthroughbothfacesis
<l>f~
=
ZEA.
(Thefluxesaddratherthancancelbecausetheareavector
it
points
outward
oneachface.)There's
no
fluxthroughthewallofthecylinderbecausethefieldvectorsaretangenttothewall.Thusthenetfluxissimply
<1>,
=
ZEA
Thechargeinsidethecylinderisthechargecontainedinarea
A
oftheplane.Thisis
Qm
=
7jA
Withtheseexpressionsfor
Qm
and
<1>"
Gauss'slawis
<1>,
=
2EA
=
Qm
=
7jA
EOEO
ThustheelectricfieldofaninfmitechargedplaneisThisagreeswiththeresultofChapter27.
ASSESS
ThisisanotherexampleofaGaussiansurfaceenclosingonlysomeofthecharge.Mostoftheplane'schargeisoutsidetheGaussiansurfaceanddoesnotcontributetotheflux,butitdoesaffecttheshapeofthefield.Wewouldn'thaveplanarsymmetry,withtheelectricfieldexactlyperpendiculartotheplane,withoutalltherestofthechargeontheplane.
TheplaneofchargeisanespeciallygoodexampleofhowpowerfulGauss'slawcanbe.Findingtheelectricfieldofaplaneofchargeviasuperpositionwasadifficultandtediousderivation.WithGauss'slaw,onceyouseehowtoapplyit,theproblemissimpleenoughtosolveinyourhead!Youmightwonder,then,whywebotheredwithsuperpositionatall.ThereasonisthatGauss'slaw,powerfulthoughitmaybe,iseffectiveonlyinalimitednumberofsituationswherethefieldishighlysymmetric.Superpositionalwaysworks,evenifthederivationismessy,becausesuperpositiongoesdirectlybacktothefieldsofindi-vidualpointcharges.It'sgoodtouseGauss'slawwhenyoucan,butsuperpositionisoftentheonlywaytoattackreal-worldchargedistributions.
I
nop
TOTHINK18.5
J
WhichGaussiansurfacewouldallowyoutouseGauss'slawtodeterminetheelectricfieldoutsideauniformlychargedcube?a.Aspherewhosecentercoincideswiththecenterofthechargedcube.b.Acubewhosecentercoincideswiththecenterofthechargedcubeandwhichhasparallelfaces.c.Eitheraorb.d.Neitheranorb.
 
870
CHAPTER
28.Gauss's
Law
FIGURE
28.28
AGaussiansurfacejustinsideaconductorthat'sinelectrostaticequilibrium.
Theelectricfieldinside
theconductor
is
zero.
ThefluxthroughtheGaussiansurface
is
zero.There'snonetchargeinsidetheconductor.Hencealltheexcesscharge
is
onthesurface.
FIGURE
28.29
Theelectricfieldatthesurfaceofachargedconductor.
Theelectricfieldatthesurface
isperpendicular
tp
the
surface.
\\,~,
FIGURE
28.30
AGaussiansurfaceextendingthroughthesurfaceoftheconductorhasafluxonlythroughtheouterface.
Surfacechargedensity."Theelectricfieldisperpendicular
to
thesurface.
\
+
+
+
+++
28.6ConductorsinElectrostaticEquilibrium
Considerachargedconductor,suchasachargedmetalelectrode,inelectrostaticequilibrium.Thatis,thereisnocurrentthroughtheconductorandthechargesareallstationary.InChapter26,youlearnedthattheelectricfieldiszeroatallpointswithinaconductorinelectrostaticequilibrium.Tbatis,
Em
=
O.
Ifthisweren'ttrue,theelectricfieldwouldcausethecbargecarrierstomoveandtbusviolatetheassumptiontbatalltbecbargesareatrest.Let'suseGauss'slawtoseewbatelsewecanlearn.
AttheSurfaceofaCondudor
FIGURE
28.28
showsaGaussiansurfacejustbarelyinsidetbephysicalsurfaceofacon-ductorthat'sinelectrostaticequilibrium.Tbeelectricfieldiszeroatallpointswitbintbeconductor,hencetbeelectricflux
<P,
througbthisGaussiansurfacemustbezero.Butif
<P,
=
0,Gauss'slawtellsusthat
Qm
=
O.Thatis,there'snonetchargewithinthissurface.Therearecbarges--electronsandpositiveions-butno
net
charge.Ifthere'snonetchargeintheinteriorofaconductorinelectrostaticequilibrium,thenalltheexcesschargeonachargedconductorresidesontheexteriorsurfaceoftheconductor.Anychargesaddedtoaconductorquicklyspreadacrossthesurfaceuntilreacbingpositionsofelectrostaticequilibrium,butthereisnonetcbarge
within
theconductor.Tberemaybenoelectricfieldwithinacbargedconductor,butthepresenceofnetcbargerequiresanexteriorelectricfieldinthespaceoutsidetheconductor,
FIGURE
28.29
showsthattheelectricfieldrightatthesurfaceoftheconductorhastobeperpen-diculartothesurface.Toseethatthisisso,suppose
E,oo"",
hadacomponenttangenttothesurface.Tbiscomponentof
E,oo"",
wouldexertaforceontbesurfacecbargesandcauseasurfacecurrent,thusviolatingtheassump-tiontbatallchargesareatrest.Theonlyexteriorelectricfieldconsistentwithelectro-staticequilibriumisonetbatisperpendiculartotbesurface.WecanuseGauss'slawtorelatethefieldstrengthatthesurfacetothecbargeden-sityontbesurface.
FIGURE
28.30
sbowsasmallGaussiancylinderwitbfacesverysligbtlyaboveandbelowthesurfaceofacbargedconductor.ThecbargeinsidethisGaussiancylinderis
1)A,
wbere
1)
istbesurfacechargedensityattbispointonthecon-ductor.There'saflux
<P
=
AE,OO,re
througbtbeoutsidefaceofthiscylinderbut,unlikeExample28.6fortheplaneofcharge,
no
fluxthroughtheinsidefacebecause
Em
=
0
withintheconductor.Furthermore,there'snofluxtbroughthewallofthecylinderbecause
E,OO,re
isperpendiculartothesurface.Tbusthenetfluxis
<P,
=
AE,oo"",.
Gauss'slawis
<P,
=
AE,oo~,
=
Q;n
=
1)A
EOEO
(28.19)fromwhichwecanconcludethattheelectricfieldatthesurfaceofachargedconduc-
toris
~(1).)
E,oo~,
=;;;'
perpendiculartosurface(28.20)
In
general,tbesurfacechargedensity
1)
is
not
constantontbesurfaceofaconduc-torbutvariesinacomplicatedwaythatdependsontheshapeoftbeconductor.
If
wecandetermine
1),
byeitbercalculatingitormeasuringit,thenEquation28.20tellsustbeelectricfieldatthatpointonthesurface.Alternatively,wecanuseEquation28.20todeducetbecbargedensityontheconductor'ssurfaceifweknowtbeelectricfieldjustoutsidetheconductor.
 
28.6.ConductorsinElectrostaticEquilibrium
811
ChargesandFieldswithinaConductor
FIGURE28.31
showsachargedconductorwithaholeinside.Cantherebechargeonthisinteriorsurface?Tofindout,weplaceaGaussiansurfacearoundthehole,infinitesi-mallyclosebutentirelywithintheconductor.Theelectricflux
<I>
e
throughthisGauss-iansurfaceiszerobecausetheelectricfieldiszeroeverywhereinsidetheconductor.Thuswemustconcludethat
Q;n
=
O.There'snonetchargeinsidethisGaussiansur-faceandthusnochargeonthesurfaceofthehole.Anyexcesschargeresidesonthe
exterior
surfaceoftheconductor,notonanyinteriorsurfaces.Furthermore,becausethere'snoelectricfieldinsidetheconductorandnochargeinsidethehole,theelectricfieldinsidetheholemustalsobezero.Thisconclusionhasanimportantpracticalapplication.Forexample,supposeweneedtoexcludetheelec-tricfieldfromtheregionin
FIGURE28.320
enclosedwithindashedlines.Wecandosobysurroundingthisregionwiththeneutralconductingboxof
FIGURE28.32b.FIGURE28.32
Theelectricfieldcanbeexcludedfromaregionofspacebysurroundingitwithaconductingbox.
(8)
Parallel-platecapacitor
~/E
r-
++++++++++++++
.....:':
Wewant
to
ex~lude
he
electricfieldfromthisregion.
(b)Theconductingboxhasbeenpolarized
andhasinducedsurfacecharges.
!
Theelectricfieldisperpendicular
to
allconductingsurfaces.
Thisregionofspaceisnowaholeinsideaconductor,thustheinteriorelectricfieldiszero.Theuseofaconductingboxtoexcludeelectricfieldsfromaregionofspaceiscalled
screening.
Solidmetalwallsareideal,butinpracticewirescreenorwiremesh-sometimescalleda
Faraday
cage-providessufficientscreeningforallbutthemostsensitiveapplications.Thepricewepayisthattheexteriorfieldisnowverycomplicated.Finally,
FIGURE28.33
showsacharge
q
insideaholewithinaneutralconductor.Theelectricfield
within
theconductorisstillzero,hencetheelectricfluxthroughtheGaussiansurfaceiszero.But
<I>
e
=
0requires
Q;n
=
O.Consequently,thechargeinsidetheholeattractsanequalchargeofoppositesign,andcharge-
q
nowlinestheinnersurfaceofthehole.Theconductorasawholeisneutral,somoving
-q
tothesurfaceoftheholemustleave
+q
behindsomewhereelse.Wbereisit?
It
can'tbeintheinterioroftheconduc-tor,aswe'veseen,andthatleavesonlytheexteriorsurface.
In
essence,aninternalchargepolarizestheconductorjustasanexternalchargewould.Netcharge-
q
movestotheinnersurfaceandnetcharge
+
q
isleftbehindontheexteriorsurface.
In
summary,conductorsinelectrostaticequilibriumhavethepropertiesdescribedinTacticsBox28.3onthenextpage.
FIGURE28.31
AGaussiansurfacesurroundingaholeinsideaconductorinelectrostaticequilibrium.
Ahollowcompletely
enclosedbytheconductorThefluxthroughtheGaussiansurfaceiszero.There'snonetchargeinside,hence
nochargeonthisinteriorsurface.
FIGURE28.33
Achargeintheholecausesanetchargeontheinteriorandexteriorsurfaces.
ThefluxthroughtheGaussiansurfaceiszero,
hencethere'sno
net
chargeinsidethissurface.
Theremust
be
charge-
q
ontheinside
surfacetobalancepointcharge
q.
--:;:---_\
+;
~::!~tor
E=
0
i
Theoutersurfacemusthavecharge
+
q
sothattheconductorremainsneutral.

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