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{Physics}.0011

{Physics}.0011

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YoulearnedinChapter31thatchargeandcurrentareconserved.Consequently,thetotalcurrentintothejunctionof
FIGURE32.5a
mustequalthetotalcurrentleavingthejunction.Thatis,
32.2.Kirchhoff'sLawsandtheBasicCircuit969
DEMO:Purchasefromwww.A-PDF.comtoremovethewatermark
FIGURE32.5
Kirchhoff'slawsapplytojunctionsandloops.
(32.1)
'\~~AF
.«>;
Junctionlaw:
11
=
12
+
13
(a)
ThisstatementisKirchhoffsjunctionlaw.
An
importantpropertyoftheelectricpotentialisthatthesumofthepotentialdif-ferencesaroundanylooporclosedpathiszero.Thisisastatementofenergyconser-vation,becauseachargethatmovesaroundaclosedpathandreturnstoitsstartingpointhas
liU
=
O.
Weapplythisideatothecircuitof
FIGURE32.5b
byaddingallofthepotentialdifferences
around
theloopformedbythecircuit.Doingsogives
(b)
Startand
li
V,
L
endhere.~#=C<------>==:E='=':",/ooP
(32.2)
",I~~
Addthepotentiai'
~=C=J=#
differencesaroundtheloop.
<------>
av,
where
(Ii
V)i
isthepotentialdifferenceoftheithcomponentintheloop.Thisstate-mentisKirchhoffslooplaw.Kirchhoff'slooplawcanbetrueonlyifatleastoneofthe
(Ii
V)i
isnegative.Toapplythelooplaw,weneedtoexplicitlyidentifywhichpotentialdifferencesareposi-tiveandwhicharenegative.
Looplaw:
liV,
+
liV,
+
liV,
+
liV,~
0
TACTICSUsingKirchhoffslooplaw
BOX32.1
o
Drawacircuitdiagram.Labelallknownandunknownquantities.6Assignadirectiontothecurrent.Drawandlabelacurrentarrow
J
toshowyourchoice.
If
youknowtheactualcurrentdirection,choosethatdirection.
If
youdon'tknowtheactualcurrentdirection,makeanarbitrarychoice.Allthatwillhappenifyouchoosewrongisthatyourvaluefor
J
willendupnegative.
o
"Travel"aroundtheloop.Startatanypointinthecircuit,thengoallthewayaroundtheloopinthedirectionyouassignedtothecurrentinstep2.Asyougothrougheachcir-cuitelement,
Ii
V
isinterpretedtomean
a
v
=
Vdownstream-Vupstream
------+-
Travel
-+
----lll~
Foranidealbatteryinthenegative-to-positivedirection:
Ii
Vb"
=
+t:
Potentialincreases
Foranidealbatteryinthepositive-to-negativedirection:
Ii
Vb"
=
-e
-------+
Travel
+-
-----1111--
Potentialdecreases
Foraresistor:liV
R
=
-JR.
Potentialdecreases
o
Applythelooplaw:
L(liV)i
=
O.
Exercises
4-7
II
NOTE~
Ii
V
R
foraresistorseemstobeoppositeOhm'slaw,butOhm'slawwasconcernedwithonlythe
magnitude
ofthepotentialdifference.Kirchhoff'slawrequiresustorecognizethattheelectricpotentialinsidearesistor
decreases
inthedirectionofthecurrent.Thus
Ii
V
=
Vdown'tream-Vup'tre,m
<
O....
 
970
CHAPTER
32.FundamentalsofCircuits
FIGURE32.6
Thebasiccircuitofaresistorconnectedtoabattery.
FIGURE32.7
AnalysisofthebasiccircuitusingKirchhoff'slooplaw.
o
DraW"::,:.'.icircuitdiagram.
)
The
orientationof
thebattery
indicatesaclockwisecurrent,soassignacl.JCkwisedirection
to
I.
..
o
Determine
!J.
V
for
each
circuit
element.
TheBasicCircuit
Themostbasicelectriccircuitisasingleresistorconnectedtothetwoterminalsofabattery.
FIGURE32.60
showsaliteralpictureofthecircuitelementsandtheconnectingwires;
FIGURE32.6b
isthecircuitdiagram.Noticethatthisisa
completecircuit,
form-ingacontinuouspathbetweenthebatteryterminals.Theresistormightbeaknownresistor,suchas"a
10
n
resistor,"oritmightbesomeotherresistivedevice,suchasalightbulb.Regardlessofwhattheresistoris,itiscalledthe
load.
Thebatteryiscalledthe
source.
FIGURE32.7
showstheuseofKirchhoff'slooplawtoanalyzethiscircuit.Twothingsareworthnoting:
1.
Thiscircuithasnojunctions,sothecurrent
I
isthesameinallfoursidesofthecircuit.Kirchhoff'sjunctionlawisnotneeded.
2.
We'reassumingtheideal-wiremodel,inwhichthereare
no
potentialdiffer-encesalongtheconnectingwires.Kirchhoff'slooplaw,withtwocircuitelements,is(32.3)Let'slookateachofthetwotermsinEquation32.3:
1.
Thepotential
increases
aswetravelthroughthebatteryonourclockwisejour-neyaroundtheloop.Weenterthenegativeterminaland,fartherdownstream,exitthepositiveterminalafterhavinggainedpotential
E.
Thus
~Vb,t
=
+E
2.
The
magnitude
ofthepotentialdifferenceacrosstheresistoris~
V
=
IR,
butOhm'slawdoesnottelluswhetherthisshouldbepositiveornegative-andthedifferenceiscrucial.Thepotentialofaconductor
decreases
inthedirectionofthecurrent,whichwe'veindicatedwiththe
+
and-signsinFigure32.7.Thus
+
R
.6.
V
R
=
Vdownstream-Vupstream
=-
IR
NOTE~
Determiuingwhichpotentialdifferencesarepositiveandwhicharenega-tiveisperhaps
the
mostimportantstepincircuitanalysis....Withthisinformationabout~
Vb"
and~
V
R,
theloopequationbecomes
E-IR=O
(32.4)Wecansolvetheloopequationtofindthatthecurrentinthecircuitis
E
I=-
R
(32.5)Wecanthenusethecurrenttofindthattheresistor'spotentialdifferenceis
~VR
=
-IR
=
-E
(32.6)Thisresultshouldcomeasnosurprise.Thepotentialenergythatthechargesgaininthebatteryissubsequentlylostasthey"fall"throughtheresistor.
NOTE~
Thecurrentdependsonthesizeoftheresistance.Theemfofabatteryisafixedquantity;thecurrentthatthebatterydeliversdependsjointlyontheemfandontheload....
 
EXAMPLE32.1
Asingle-resistorcircuit
AIS0resistorisconnectedtotheterminalsofa1.5Vbattery.a.Whatisthecurrentinthecircuit?b.Drawagraphshowingthepotentialasafunctionofdistancetraveledthroughthecircuit,startingfrom
V
=
0
Vatthenega-tiveterminalofthebattery.
MODEL
Assumeidealconnectingwiresandanidealbatteryforwhich
.<l
V""'
=
e.
VISUALIZEFIGURE32.8
showsthecircuit.We'llchooseaclockwise(cw)directionfor
I.
FIGURE32.8
ThecircuitofExample32.1.
1.5V+-~15!!
-~
SOLVE
a.Thisisthebasiccircuitofasingleresistorconnectedtoasinglebattery.ThecurrentisgivenbyEquation32.5:
e
1.5V
=s:
ISO=O.IOA
EXAMPLE32.2
Amorecomplexcircuit
Analyzethecircuitshownin
FIGURE32.1D.
a.Findthecurrentinandthepotentialdifferenceacrosseach
resistor.
b.Drawagraphshowinghowthepotentialchangesaroundthecircuit,startingfrom
V
=
0
Vatthenegativeterminalofthe6Vbattery.
FIGURE32.10
CircuitforExample32.2.
4!!+~+
6V~~9V
-T
VM
T-
2!!
MODEL
Assumeidealconnectingwiresandidealbatteries,forwhich
.<l
V""'
=
e.
VISUALIZE
In
FIGURE32.11
thecircuithasbeenredrawn;£"£2'
R"
and
R2
defined,andthecwdirectionischosenforthecurrent.Thisdirectionisanarbitrarychoicebecause,withtwobatteries,wemaynotbesureoftheactualcurrentdirection.32.2.Kirchhoff'sLawsandtheBasicCircuit
971
b.Thebattery'spotentialdifferenceis
.<l
V""
=
£
=
1.5
V.Theresistor'spotentialdifferenceis
.<l
V
R
=
=
-1.5
V.Basedonthis,
FIGURE32.9
showsthepotentialexperiencedbychargesflowingaroundthecircuit.Thedistance
s
ismeasuredfromthebattery'snegativeterminal,andwehavechosentolet
V
=
0
Vatthatpoint.Thepotentialendsatthevaluefromwhichitstatted.
FIGURE32.9
AgraphicalpresentationofhowthepotentialchangesaroundtheloopofthecircuitinFigure32.B.
1.5V
Thepotentialdecreases
......-by1.5V
intheresistor.
s
measuresthedistance
"around"theloop.
OV~==~~===tt==~~~~~'
BatteryTop
wire
ResistorBottom
wire
ASSESS
Thevalueof
I
ispositive.Thistellsusthatthe
actual
cur-
rentdirectionis
cw,
FIGURE32.11
Analyzingthecircuit.
SOLVE
a.Howdowedealwith
two
batteries?Canchargeflow"backward"throughabattery,frompositivetonegative?Con-siderthechargeescalatoranalogy.Lefttoitself,achargeesca-latorliftschargefromlowertohigherpotential.But
it
is
possibletorundownanupescalator,asmanyofyouhaveprobablydone.
If
twoescalatorsareplaced"headtohead,"whicheverisstrongerwill,indeed,forcethechargetorundowntheupescalatoroftheotherbattery.Thecurrentinabat-tery
can
befrompositivetonegativeifdriveninthatdirectionbyalargeremffromasecondbattery.Indeed,thisishowrechargeablebatteriesarerecharged.
Becausetherearenojunctions,thecurrentisthesame
through
each
componentinthecircuit.Withsomethought,wemightdeducewhetherthecurrentiscworccw,butwedonotneedtoknowinadvanceofouranalysis.Wewillchooseaclockwisedirectionforthecurrentandsolveforthevalueof
I.
Ifoursolutionispositive,thenthecurrentreallyiscw.
If
the
Continued

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