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DEMO
34.9.LC
Circuits
1069
Purchasefromwww.A-PDF.comtoremovethewatermark
34.9LC
Circuits
Telecommunication-radios,televisions,cellphones-isbasedonelectromagneticsignalsthat
oscillate
atawell-definedfrequency.Theseoscillationsaregeneratedanddetectedbyasimplecircuitconsistingofaninductorandacapacitorinparallel.Thisiscalledan
LC
circuit.In
thissectionwewilllearnwhyan
LC
circuitoscillatesanddeterminetheoscillationfrequency.
FIGURE34.44
showsacapacitorwithinitialcharge
QQ,
aninductor,andaswitch.Theswitchhasbeenopenforalongtime,sothereisnocurrentinthecircuit.Then,at
t
=
0,theswitchisclosed.Howdoesthecircuitrespond?Let'sthinkitthroughquali-tativelybeforegettingintothemathematics.As
FIGURE34.45
shows,theinductorprovidesaconductingpathfordischargingthecapacitor.However,thedischargecurrenthastopassthroughtheinductor,and,aswe'veseen,aninductorresistschangesincurrent.Consequently,thecurrentdoesn'tstopwhenthecapacitorchargereacheszero.
FIGURE34.45
Thecapacitorchargeoscillatesmuchlikeablockattachedtoaspring.
Q~+Q
o
++++++
Thecapacitordischarges
untilthecurrentisamaximum.
~
I
l
I
Maximumcapacitorchargeislike
afullystretchedspring.
Thecurrentcontinuesuntil~
the
initial
capacitorcharge
isrestored.Maximumcurrentisliketheblock
havingmaximumspeed.Thecurrentcan'tstop.Itcontinues
untilthecapacitoris
fully
recharged
with
theoppositepolarization.
~~
jj
Q~-Qo
------
Nowthedischargegoesin
theoppositedirection.
++++++
Ablockattachedtoastretchedspringisausefulmechanicalanalogy.Closingtheswitchtodischargethecapacitorislikereleasingtheblock.Theblockdoesn'tstopwhenitreachestheorigin;itsmomentumkeepsitgoinguntilthespringisfullycom-pressed.Likewise,thecurrentcontinuesuntilithasrechargedthecapacitorwiththeoppositepolarization.Thisprocessrepeatsoverandover,chargingthecapacitorfirstoneway,thentheother.Thatis,thechargeandcurrent
oscillate.
FIGURE34.44
An
LC
circuit.
Switchclosesat
t
=
O.
Initia1~)
charge
+
C
L
 
1070
CHAPTER
34.ElectromagneticInduction
Acellphoneisactuallyaverysophisticatedtwo-wayradiothatcommunicateswiththenearestbasestationviahigh-frequencyradiowaves-roughly1000MHz.Asinanyradioorcommunicationsdevice,thetransmissionfrequencyisestablishedbytheoscillatingcurrentinan
LC
circuit.
Thegoalofourcircuitanalysiswillbetofindexpressionsshowinghowthecapaci-torchargeQandtheinductorcurrent
I
changewithtime.Asalways,ourstartingpointforcircuitanalysisisKirchhoff'svoltagelaw,whichsaysthatallthepotentialdiffer-encesaroundaclosedloopmustsumtozero.Choosingacwdirectionfor
I,
Kirch-hoff'slawis(34.43)YoulearnedinChapter30thatthepotentialdifferenceacrossacapacitoris
a
Vc
=
QIC,
whereQisthechargeonthetopplateofthecapacitor,andwefoundthepotentialdifferenceacrossaninductorinEquation34.36above.Usingthese,Kirch-hoff'slawbecomesQ
dI
--L-=
0C
dt
(34.44)Equation34.44hastwounknowns,Qand
I.
WecaneliminateoneoftheunknownsbyfindinganotherrelationbetweenQand
I.
Currentistherateatwhichchargemoves,
I
=
dqldt,
butthechargeflowingthroughtheinductorischargethatwas
removed
fromthecapacitor.Thatis,aninfinitesimalcharge
dq
flowsthroughtheinductorwhenthecapacitorchargechangesby
dQ
=
-dq.
Thusthecurrentthroughtheinduc-torisrelatedtothechargeonthecapacitorby
dQ
1=--
dt
(34.45)Now
I
ispositivewhenQisdecreasing,aswewouldexpect.Thisisasubtlebutimportantstepinthereasoning,oneworththinkingaboutbecauseitappearsinothercontexts.Equations34.44and34.45aretwoequationsintwounknowns.Tosolvethem,we'llfirsttakethetimederivativeofEquation34.45:
d1__
ti_(_
d
Q)__
d
2
Q
dt-dtdt-dt
2
(34.46)WecansubstitutethisresultintoEquation34.44:(34.47)NowwehaveanequationforthecapacitorchargeQ.Equation34.47isasecond-orderdifferentialequationforQ.Fortunately,itisanequationwe'veseenbeforeandalreadyknowhowtosolve.Toseethis,rewriteEquation34.47as(34.48)Recall,fromChapter14,thattheequationofmotionforanundampedmassonaspringis(34.49)Equation34.48is
exactlythesameequation,
with
x
replacedbyQand
kIm
replacedby
lILC.
Thisshouldbenosurprisebecausewe'vealreadyseenthatamassonaspringisamechanicalanalogofthe
LC
circuit.
 
WeknowthesolutiontoEquation34.49.
It
issimpleharmonicmotion
x(t)
=
XoCOSlLlt
withangularfrequency
ta
=~
ThusthesolutiontoEquation34.48mustbe
Q(t)
=
QOCOSlLlt
whereQ
o
istheinitialcharge,at
t
=
0,andtheangularfrequencyis
lLl=~
(34.50)(34.51)Thechargeontheupperplateofthecapacitoroscillatesbackandforthbetween
+
Qo
and
-Qo
(theoppositepolarization)withperiod
T
=
27ftlLl.
Asthecapacitorchargeoscillates,sodoesthecurrentthroughtheinductor.UsingEquation34.45givesthecurrentthroughtheinductor:(34.52)where
I""",
=lLlQo
isthemaximumcurrent.An
LC
circuitisan
electricoscillator,
oscillatingatfrequency
f
=lLl/27f.
FICiURE
34.46
showsgraphsofthecapacitorchargeQandtheinductorcurrent
I
asfunctionsoftime.ThelettersoverthegraphmatchthelabelsinFigure34.45,andyoushouldcomparethetwo.NoticethatQand
I
are90
0
outofphase.Thecurrentiszerowhenthecapacitorisfullycharged,asexpected,andthechargeiszerowhenthecurrentismaximum.
EXAMPLE
34.15
AnAM
radiooscillator
Youhavea1.0
mH
inductor.Whatcapacitorshouldyouchoosetomakeanoscillatorwithafrequencyof920kHz?(ThisfrequencyisnearthecenteroftheAMradioband.)
SOLVE
Theangularfrequencyis
ta
=
27rf
=
5.78X10
6
rad/s.UsingEquation34.51for
to
givestherequiredcapacitor:
I1
C
=
w2L
=
(5.78X10
6
rad/s)2(0.0010H)
=
3.0X1O-
11
F
=
30pF
An
LC
circuit,likeamassonaspring,wantstorespondonlyatitsnaturaloscilla-tionfrequency
lLl
=
"viC.
InChapter14wedefinedastrongresponseatthenaturalfrequencyasa
resonance,
andresonanceisthebasisforalltelecommunications.Theinputcircnitinradios,televisions,andcellphonesisan
LC
circnitdrivenbythesignalpickedupbytheantenna.Thissignalisthesuperpositionofhundredsofsinusoidalwavesatdifferentfrequencies,onefromeachtransmitterinthearea,butthecircuitrespondsonlytothe
one
signalthatmatchesthecircuit'snaturalfrequency.Thatpar-ticnlarsignalgeneratesalarge-amplitudecurrentthatcanbefurtheramplifiedanddecodedtobecometheoutputthatyouhear.Turningthedialonyourradioortelevisionchangesa
variablecapacitor,
thuschangingtheresonancefrequencysothatyoupickupadifferentstation.Cellphonesareabitmorecomplicated.Youdon'tchangethecapacitanceyourself,buta"smart"circnitinsidecanchangeitscapacitanceinresponsetocommandsignalsitreceivesfromthetransmitter.Theresultisthesame.Yourcellphonerespondstotheonesignalbeingbroadcasttoyouandignoresthehundredsofothersignalsthatarebeingbroad-castsimnltaneouslyatdifferentfrequencies.
34.9.
LC
Circuits
1071
FICiURE
34.46
Theoscillationsofan
LC
circuit.
Capacitor
charge
Q

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