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AAMC7RSolutions

AAMC7RSolutions

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SOLUTIONS
MCAT
*
Practice Test 7
MCAT
MEDICAL COLLEGE ADMISSION TEST
www.PrincetonReview.com
 
MCAT Practice Test 7 Solutions
2
MCAT Practice Test 7
SOLUTIONS
 Edited, produced, typeset, and illustrated by
Steve LeducDirector of MCAT Program DevelopmentThe Princeton Review
C
ONTENTS
P
AGE
Physical Sciences solutions
.....................................................3Steve Leduc (
Physics
)Steve Leduc, Bethany Blackwell (
General Chemistry
)
Verbal Reasoning solutions
...................................................12Jennifer Wooddell
 Biological Sciences solutions
................................................32Judene Wright (
 Biology
)Bethany Blackwell (
Organic Chemistry
)Copyright © 2004 by Princeton Review, Inc.All rights reserved.*MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC).The Princeton Review is not affiliated with Princeton University or AAMC.This document is for the exclusive use of Princeton Review course students,and is not legal for resale.
www.PrincetonReview.com
040721
 
Physical Sciences Solutions
3
 
PHYSICAL SCIENCES SOLUTIONS
Passage I (Questions 1–7)
1. C.
 When looking for a correct Lewis structure, first check to see if a proposed structure at least accounts for the correctnumber of valence electrons. Each nitrogen atom has 5 valence electrons, and each hydrogen atom has 1. Therefore, the Lewisstructure for N
2
H
4
must account for (2
×
5) + (4
×
1) = 14 valence electrons. Since each line (
) in the structure representsa pair of electrons, the structure shown in choice A (with 6 lines and no lone pairs) accounts for 6
×
2 = 12 electrons, and thestructure in choice B (with 6 lines and 2 lone pairs) accounts for (6
×
2) + (2
×
2) = 16, so neither of these can be correct. Todecide between choices C and D, we now realize that a nitrogen atom needs just 3 electrons to complete its octet, so we expecteach nitrogen to form 3 bonds as follows:Therefore, the structure shown in choice C is best.
2. D.
The Raschig process is given by Equation 1 in the passage. Because this equation is balanced, we can see that to produce1 mole of hydrazine, 2 moles of ammonia are required. The mass of 2 moles of NH
3
is 2[14.0 + 3(1.0)] = 34.0 grams.
3. D.
According to the passage, the chemical formula of hydrazine hydrate is N
2
H
4
· H
2
O. The mass of the hydrazine is 2(14.0)+ 4(1.0) = 32.0 grams, and the mass of the water is 2(1.0) + 16.0 = 18.0 grams, so the total mass of the hydrate is 32.0 + 18.0 =50.0 grams. Therefore, the percent by weight (or mass) of hydrazine in hydrazine hydrate is 32.0/50.0
×
100%.
4. A.
The reaction given in this question shows the formation of hydrazine from its elements in their most stable form, so theenthalpy change
Δ
 H 
° will be the standard enthalpy of formation,
Δ
 H 
°. According to Table 1, the value of 
Δ
 H 
° for N
2
H
4
() is50.6 kJ mol
 –1
.
5. B.
One way to compare the relative strengths of a pair of weak bases is to compare their
b
(basicity constant) values:the lower the
b
, the weaker the base. So, the fact that hydrazine is a weaker base than ammonia is reflected in the fact thathydrazine has a smaller basicity constant than ammonia; thus, choice B must be correct. Choices C and D can be eliminatedsince the number of protons a base can accept or its ability to hydrogen bond is unrelated to base strength.
6. C.
The change in Gibbs free energy
Δ
G
for the formation of hydrazine from its elements is the standard free energy of formation,
Δ
G
°. In order for a reaction to be spontaneous, the value of 
Δ
G
must be negative. However, according to Table 1,the value of 
Δ
G
° is positive (149.2 kJ mol
 –1
).
7. C.
Gases are more disordered—and thus have a greater entropy—than liquids. In Equation 2, there are 0 moles of gaseousreactants and 7 moles of gaseous products. Therefore, the entropy increases (
Δ
° > 0) because the number of moles of gaseousproducts is greater than the number of moles of gaseous reactants.
Passage II (Questions 8–13)
8. B.
Choice A is incorrect, since the strong nuclear force binds protons and neutrons within a nucleus; it does not bind atomsto each other. Choice D is eliminated because Coulombʼs law simply describes the force between charged particles (in thiscase, between the positively charged ions and the negatively charged electrons); the law does not “prohibit” the motion of theions. Choice C can be eliminated since the ions
do
feel an electric force when the electron sea is displaced. The passage statesthat when the electrons are displaced, electric fields act; but we know that whenever an electric field acts on a charged particle,the particle experiences an electric force (
F
=
q
E
). Therefore, the answer is B. When we consider the force between an ion andan electron, each of these particles feels the same magnitude of force,
(by Newtonʼs Third law), but the effects will be verydifferent here, because the masses of the particles are so different. An ion is much more massive than an electron, and as a result,the acceleration of the ion,
a
ion
=
/
m
ion
, is much smaller than the acceleration of the electron,
a
electron
=
/
m
electron
.

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