Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
#8 Faye

#8 Faye

|Views: 9|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Karen Ligaray Paclibar on Jun 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





With Faye Abdellah’s Patient
- Centered Approaches to Nursing, it aims to deliver nursing carefor the whole individual which encompasses the 21 Nursing Problems. Abdellah emphasized nursing asa complex art of service and to identify one of the nursing problem under
Sustenal Care Needs
To Facilitate the Maintenance of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Man cannot live without water. As we all know the body is mostly comprised of water. An adultis comprised of 60% water (Williams, 2007). This water is found in the most diminutive places such ascells and blood. As such, a person requires water in order to survive; the human body relies on it tosustain itself. If a person does not have an adequate amount of water in his or her body, the person willexperience symptoms such as nausea and dizziness; this will ultimately become dehydration due to thefact that the body is not receiving enough water in terms of what is required (Williams,2007).
Water is an integral component within a person’s health maintenance. The functions of 
water within the human body allow it to fundamentally perform essential functions. For instance,the human body utilizes water to aid digestion. These are the building-
 blocks of a person’s body.This also serves a medium to wash out the body’s waste. With no water, the body won’t be able
to function very well. Even the blood that flows through our veins is very dependent to transfernutrients, vitamins to our cells throughout our human body (Juan & Basiotis , 2004). It also
serves as a means to regulate the body’s temperature. Its usage and consumption differs as some
people sweats a lot and consumes more than enough. Electrolytes are minerals in our body that have an electric charge. They are in our blood, urine and body fluids. Maintaining the rightbalance of electrolytes helps our body's blood chemistry, muscle action and other processes.Sodium, calcium, potassium,chlorine, phosphate and magnesium are all electrolytes. We get them from the foods we eat and the fluids we drink.Levels of electrolytes in a body can become too low or too high. That can happen whenthe amount of  water in the body changes. Causes include some medicines, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating or kidney problems. Problems most often occur with levels of sodium, potassium orcalcium.
 Fluid Balance & Electrolyte Balance
The kidneys maintain fluid balance in the body by regulating the amount and componentsof fluid inside and around the cells. The fluid inside the cell is called the
Intracellular Fluid(ICF
). It contains large amount of potassium, magnesium and phosphate ions. The fluid in thespaces are so called
Extracellular Fluid ( ECF)
includes blood plasma and interstitial fluidwhich contains large amounts of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions plus cell nutrients suchas oxygen, glucose, fatty acids and amino acids. It also contains carbon dioxide, transported fromthe cells to the lungs for excretion and other cellular products transported from cells to kidneys.Basically there are 4 aspects of forces that move fluid in and out of vessels namely: oncoticpressure of plasma proteins, hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid, hydrostatic pressure of tissue fluid, osmotic pressure.Electrolyte imbalances can affect all body systems. Too much or too little potassiumgreatly affects excitability of the cardiac muscle, which causes arrhythmias. Multiple neurologic
symptoms may result from electrolyte imbalance, ranging from disorientation or confusion. Toomuch or too little of sodium may also cause oliguria which increase or decrease blood pressure.Fluid and electrolyte balance is really essential for health. Several factors can causedisruption of fluid and electrolyte balances such as: illnesses, injury, surgery, and treatments.
Normal Adult Values
Calcium: 4.5-5.5 mEq/LChloride: 97-107 mEq/LPotassium: 3.5-5.3 mEq/LMagnesium: 1.5-2.5 mEq/LSodium: 136-145 mEq/LAs I mentioned above, fluid and electrolyte imbalance results from several factors and Ican attest to this especially in a hospital care setting. Working in a Chemo Base Unit is no joke.One day you see your patient alert and oriented, vitally and hemodynamically stable then thefollowing day you will see your patient unresponsive, with muscle twitching, shortness of breath,unstable vital signs and so on and so forth. I remember one time a patient who is postchemotherapy came to ER and was admitted to our unit which presented with severe mucositis(oral thrush/ulcers), with profuse diarrhea, looking pale and dry, lethargic. The patient is alwaysnauseated and with on and off vomiting, with vital signs BP (90/58); HR (120); RR (24); O2(95%) on room air. As the primary nurse, I followed up the blood results keenly and unluckily, itcame out to have severe electrolyte imbalance. Serum K (3.0meq/L); serum Mg (0.59meq/L);serum Ca (7.5mg/L). IV fluid with additives were ordered by the physician. Electrolyte boluseswere also given, and ECG was done, vital signs were monitored accordingly. And transfer toICU was facilitated for further monitoring. With such symptoms a nurse can easily identifyespecially that it really needs urgent management and intervention.
What is an electrolyte imbalance?
There are many causes for an electrolyte imbalance. Causes for an electrolyte imbalance mayinclude:
•Loss of body fluids from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, sweating or high fever 
•Inadequate die
t and lack of vitamins from food
- your body may be unable to absorb these electrolytes due to a variety of stomach disorders, medications, or may be how food is taken in
•Hormonal or endocrine disorders
•Kidney disease
•A complication of ch
emotherapy is tumor lysis syndrome. This occurs when your body breaksdown tumor cells rapidly after chemotherapy, causing a low blood calcium level, high bloodpotassium levels, and other electrolyte abnormalities.
Certain medications may cause an electrolyte imbalance such as:
•Chemotherapy drugs (cisplatin)
•Diuretics (furosemide[Lasix] or bumetanide[Bumex])
•Antibiotics (amphotericin B);
 *Corticosteroids (hydrocortisone)
What are some symptoms of electrolyte imbalance to look for?
As described, an electrolyte imbalance may create a number of symptoms. The symptoms of electrolyteimbalance are based on which of the electrolyte levels are affected.
•If your blood test results indicate an altered potassium, magnesium, sodium, or calcium
levels, you mayexperience muscle spasm, weakness, twitching, or convulsions.
•Blood test results showing low levels may lead to: irregular heartbeat, confusion, blood pressure
changes, nervous system or bone disorders.
•Blood test results showing high lev
els may lead to: weakness or twitching of the muscles, numbness,fatigue, irregular heartbeat and blood pressure changes.
Signs and symptoms of water imbalance:
Water deficit Water Excess
thirst headacheChange in urinary output:oliguria except in soluteexcess where polyruia is seenDrowsiness; apathy and lethargyweakness weaknessdisorientation disorientation
: flushed skin, scant body secretions,tongueappears dry and fissured; mucous membranes feel
“sticky”weight loss, increase temp, personality
changes, hallucinations, delirium, manic behavior,convulsions, coma
: weight gain, skin warm and moist, cramps,

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->