14-1REVIEW OF ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF SLABS
The concepts involved in the elastic analysis of slabs are reviewed briefly here,to show therelationship between the loads and the internal moments in the slab. In addition,and evenmore important,this will show the relationship between moments and slab curvatures.Slabs may be subdivided into
thick
slabs (with a thickness greater than about one-tenth of the span),
thin
slabs (with a thickness less than about one-fortieth of the span),and
medium-thick
slabs. Thick slabs transmit a portion of the loads as a flat arch and have sig-nificant in-plane compressive forces,with the result that the internal resisting compressiveforce
C
is larger than the internal tensile force
T
. Thin slabs transmit a portion of the loadsby acting as a tension membrane; hence,
T
is larger than
C
. A medium-thick slab does notexhibit either arch action or membrane action and thus hasFigure14-1shows an element cut from a medium-thick,two-way slab. This ele-ment is acted on by the moments shown in Fig. 14-1aand by the shears and loads shownin Fig. 14-1b. (The figures are separated for clarity.)Two types of moment exist on each edge:bending moments and about axesparallel to the edges,and twisting moments and about axes perpendicular to theedges. The moments are shown by moment vectors represented by double-headed arrows.The moment in question acts about the arrow according to the right-hand-screw rule.The length of vector represents the magnitude of the moment. Vectors can be addedgraphically or numerically. The moments and so on,are defined for a unit width of the edge they act on,as are the shears and so on. The and moments are posi-tive,corresponding to compression on the top surface. The twisting moments on adja-cent edges both act to cause compression on the same surface of the slab,at the cornerbetween the two edges,as shown in Fig. 14-1a.Summing vertical forces gives(14-1)
0
V
x
0
x
+0
V
y
0
y
= -
q
m
y
m
x
V
x
,
m
x
,
m
yx
m
xy
m
y
m
x
T
=
C
.
785
14
Two-Way Slabs:Elastic and Yield-Line Analyses