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Chapter 14 Two-Way Slabs; Elastic and Yield-Line Analyses

Chapter 14 Two-Way Slabs; Elastic and Yield-Line Analyses

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Published by Ravindra MR

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Published by: Ravindra MR on Jun 27, 2012
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11/13/2013

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14-1REVIEW OF ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF SLABS
The concepts involved in the elastic analysis of slabs are reviewed briefly here,to show therelationship between the loads and the internal moments in the slab. In addition,and evenmore important,this will show the relationship between moments and slab curvatures.Slabs may be subdivided into
thick 
slabs (with a thickness greater than about one-tenth of the span),
thin
slabs (with a thickness less than about one-fortieth of the span),and
medium-thick 
slabs. Thick slabs transmit a portion of the loads as a flat arch and have sig-nificant in-plane compressive forces,with the result that the internal resisting compressiveforce
is larger than the internal tensile force
. Thin slabs transmit a portion of the loadsby acting as a tension membrane; hence,
is larger than
. A medium-thick slab does notexhibit either arch action or membrane action and thus hasFigure14-1shows an element cut from a medium-thick,two-way slab. This ele-ment is acted on by the moments shown in Fig. 14-1aand by the shears and loads shownin Fig. 14-1b. (The figures are separated for clarity.)Two types of moment exist on each edge:bending moments and about axesparallel to the edges,and twisting moments and about axes perpendicular to theedges. The moments are shown by moment vectors represented by double-headed arrows.The moment in question acts about the arrow according to the right-hand-screw rule.The length of vector represents the magnitude of the moment. Vectors can be addedgraphically or numerically. The moments and so on,are defined for a unit width of the edge they act on,as are the shears and so on. The and moments are posi-tive,corresponding to compression on the top surface. The twisting moments on adja-cent edges both act to cause compression on the same surface of the slab,at the cornerbetween the two edges,as shown in Fig. 14-1a.Summing vertical forces gives(14-1)
0
V
x
0
x
+0
V
y
0
y
= -
q
m
y
m
x
V
x
,
m
x
,
m
yx
m
xy
m
y
m
x
T
=
C
.
785
14
 Two-Way Slabs:Elastic and Yield-Line Analyses
 
786
Chapter 14Two-Way Slabs: Elastic and Yield-Line Analyses
d
d
Fig. 14-1Moments and forces in amedium-thick plate.
Summing moments about lines parallel to the
 x
and
 y
axes and neglecting higherorder terms gives,respectively,(14-2)It can be shown that Differentiating Eq. (14-2) and substituting intoEq.(14-1) gives the basic equilibrium equation for medium-thick slabs:(14-3)This is purely an equation of statics and applies regardless of the behavior of the plate ma-terial. For an elastic plate,the deflection,
 z
,can be related to the applied load by means of (14-4)where the
 plate rigidity
is(14-5)
D
=
Et
3
12
1
1
-
n
2
2
0
4
z
0
x
4
+
2
0
4
z
0
x
2
0
y
2
+0
4
z
0
y
4
= -
q
D
0
2
m
x
0
x
2
+
2
0
2
m
xy
0
x
0
y
+0
2
m
y
0
y
2
= -
qm
xy
=
m
yx
.
0
m
y
0
y
+0
m
xy
0
x
=
V
y
 
and
 
0
m
x
0
x
+0
m
yx
0
y
=
V
x
 
Section 14-2Design Moments from a Finite-Element Analysis
787
Fig. 14-2Resolution of moments.(From [14-1].)
in which is Poisson’s ratio. The term
 D
is comparable to the
 EI 
value of a unit width of slab.In an elastic plate analysis,Eq. (14-4) is solved to determine the deflections,
z
,andthe moments are calculated from(14-6)where
z
is positive downward.Solutions of Eq. (14-6) can be found in books on elastic plate theory.
14-2DESIGN MOMENTS FROM A FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS
The most common way of solving Eq. (14-6) is to use a finite-element analysis. Such ananalysis gives values of and in each element,where and aremoments per unit width. A portion of an elementbounded by a diagonal crack is shown inFig.14-2. The moments on the
 x
and
y
faces,from the finite-element analysis,are shown inFig. 14-2b. The moment about an axis parallel to the crack is given byor(14-7)This slab is to be reinforced by bars in the
 x
and
y
directions having positive momentcapacities and per unit width. The corresponding moment capacity about an axisparallel to the assumed crack is(14-8)
m
rc
=
a
dyds
b
2
1
m
rx
+
k
2
m
ry
2
m
ry
m
rx
m
c
=
a
dyds
b
2
1
m
x
+
k
2
m
y
+
2
km
xy
2
m
c
ds
=
1
m
x
dy
+
m
xy
k dy
2
cos
u
+
1
m
y
k dy
+
m
xy
dy
2
sin
u
m
c
,
m
xy
m
x
,
m
y
,
m
xy
,
m
x
,
m
y
,
m
xy
= -
D
1
1
-
v
2
0
2
z
0
x
0
ym
y
= -
D
a
0
2
z
0
y
2
+
v
0
2
z
0
x
2
b
m
x
= -
D
a
0
2
z
0
x
2
+
v
0
2
z
0
y
2
b
n

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