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Table Of Contents

1.1 History of Aviation
1.1.1 Pre-Wright Era: Early Aviation
1.1.2 The 19th Century
1.1.3 Era of Strut-and-Wire Biplanes: 1900 to World War I
1.1.4 Before World War II
1.2. WHAT DO WE STUDY IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE? 4
1.1.5 Era of Propeller-Driven Airplane: During World War II
1.1.6 Era of Jet-Propelled Airplane: After World War II until end of 20th
1.2 What do we study in aircraft structure?
1.2.1 Design Philosophy
1.2.2 Development of Aircraft Structures
1.3 Loads Acting on an Aircraft
1.4 Rotations Acting on an Airplane
1.5 Components of a typical Aircraft
1.5.1 Wings
1.5.2 Fuselage
1.5.3 Horizontal stabilizer and Elevators
1.5.4 Stabilator
1.5.5 Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder
1.5.6 Spoilers
1.5.7 Ailerons
1.5.8 Flaps and Slats
1.5.9 Gas Turbine Engines
1.5.10 Landing gear
1.6 Basic Structural Elements
1.6.1 Wing Structure
1.6.2 Fuselage Structure
1.6.3 Semimonocoque Structures
1.7 Materials
1.8 References
1.9 Suggested Problems
2.1 Aerodynamics
2.1.1 Continuity
2.1.2 Newton’s Laws Of Motion
2.1.3 Conservation laws
2.2 Mach Number
2.3 Dynamic pressure
2.4 Aircraft Weight
2.5 Center of Gravity
2.6 Center of Pressure
2.7 Aerodynamic Center
2.8 Lift
2.8.1 How is lift generated
2.8.2 No Fluid, No Lift
2.8.3 No Motion, No Lift
2.8.4 Factors That Affect Lift
2.8.5 Lift Equation
2.9 Drag
2.10 Normal Load Factor
2.10.1 Equations of Motion
2.10.2 Steady, Level Flight
2.10.3 Level Turn: Pull-Up
2.10.4 Level Turn: Pull-Down
2.10.5 Banked Turns
2.11 References
2.12 Suggested Problems
3.1 Newton’s Laws
3.2 Units
3.2.1 Importance of Units
3.2.2 Systems of Units
3.3 Load Analysis
3.3.1 Internal Force Sign Convention
3.4 Load Diagrams
3.4.1 Sign Conventions
3.4.2 Linear Differential Equations of Equilibrium
3.5 Discrete Load Diagrams
3.6 References
3.7 Suggested Problems
4.1 Geometric Properties of Plane Areas
4.1.2 First Moments of Area
4.1.3 Centroid of an Area
4.1.4 Second Moments of Area
4.1.5 Polar Moment of Inertia
4.1.6 Radius of Gyration
4.2. MODULUS-WEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 125
4.2 Modulus-Weighted Properties of Plane Areas
4.2.1 Area
4.2.2 First Moments of Area
4.2.3 Centroid of an Area
4.2.4 Second Moments of Area
4.2.5 Polar Moment of Inertia
4.2.6 Radius of Gyration
4.3 Properties of Plane Areas of Thin-Walls
4.3.1 Area
4.3.2 First Moments of Area
4.3.3 Centroid of an Area
4.3.4 Second Moments of Area
4.3.5 Polar Moment of Inertia
4.3.6 Radius of Gyration
4.4 References
4.5 Suggested Problems
5.1 Theory of Stresses
5.1.1 State of Stress at a Point
5.1.2 Stress Convention and Signs
5.1.3 Equilibrium
5.1.4 Surface Equilibrium: Cauchy’s Stress Relation
5.1.5 Principal Stresses and Principal Planes
5.2 State of Plane Stress
5.2.1 Principal stresses for Plane State of Stress
5.2.2 Principal stresses: Eigenvalue Approach
5.2.3 Principal stresses: Transformation Equations Approach
5.2.4 Principal stresses: Mohr’s Circle Approach
5.4.3 Cauchy’s relationship for Strains
5.4.4 Principal Strains and Principal Planes
5.5 State of Plane Strain
5.5.1 Principal strains for State of Plane Strain
5.5.2 Strain Measurements
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 291
5.6 Alternative Stress and Strain Quantities
5.6.1 Green-Lagrange strains
5.6.2 Stress Measures
5.7 References
5.8 Suggested Problems
6.1 Constitutive Equations for Elastic Materials
6.1.1 Hooke’s Law
6.1.2 Internal Strain Energy
6.1.3 Anisotropic Materials
6.1.4 Elastic Constitutive Relationship for Isotropic Materials
6.1.5 Elastic Stress-Strain Relationship for Orthotropic Materials
6.1.6 Temperature Strains in Isotropic Materials
6.2 Plane Stress and Plane Strain
6.2.1 Consequence of Plane Stress
6.2.2 Consequence of Plane strain
6.2.3 von Mises Stress in Plane Strain and Plane Stress
6.3 References
6.4 Suggested Problems
7.1 Beam Theory
7.1.1 Basic Considerations
7.1.2 Principle of Saint-Venant
7.1.3 Internal Force Sign Convention
7.1.4 Resultant Forces and Moments
7.2 Euler-Bernoulli Beam Theory
7.2.1 Displacement Field
7.2.2 Curvatures
7.2.3 Strains-displacement Equations
7.2.4 Stress-Strain Equations
7.2.5 Neutral Axis
7.2.6 Axial Stresses for Linear Thermoelastic Heterogeneous Beams
7.2.7 Equations of Equilibrium
7.2.8 Slope and deflection diagrams
7.3 Timoshenko Beam Theory
7.3.1 Displacement Field
7.3.2 Strains-displacement Equations
7.3.3 Stress-Strain Equations
7.3.4 Axial Stresses for Linear Thermoelastic Heterogeneous Beams
7.3.5 Slope and deflection diagrams
7.4 Plane Stress: Thick Beams
7.4.1 Plane Stress
7.4.2 Stress-Strain relationship
7.4.3 Compatibility Equations
7.4.4 Equilibrium Equations
7.4.5 Plane Stress Elasticity Problem
7.4.6 Plane Stress Elasticity Solution via Airy Stress Function
7.5 Classical (St. Venant s) Torsion Theory
7.5.1 Displacement field
7.5.2 Strains-displacement Equations
7.5.3 Stress-strain Equations
7.5.4 Equilibrium Equations
7.5.5 Boundary Conditions
7.5.6 Alternative Procedure
7.6 References
7.7 Suggested Problems
8.1.6 Shear Flow in Multiweb Junctions
8.2. SHEAR CENTER IN THIN-WALLED OPEN SECTIONS 521
8.2 Shear Center in Thin-Walled Open Sections
8.2.1 Definition of Shear Center
8.2.2 Static Equivalence
8.2.3 General Procedure
8.3 Torsion in Open Thin-Walled Sections
8.3.1 Prandtl’s membrane analogy for torsion
8.3.2 Torsion of a Narrow Rectangular Cross-Section
8.3.3 Torsion of an Arbitrary Open Thin-walled Cross-Sections
8.4 Cross-section Idealization
8.4.1 Idealization of Semi-Monocoque construction
8.4.2 Typical method to Idealize of webs
8.4.3 Shear flow and shear center in Open Idealized Sections
8.5. CLOSED SINGLE-CELL THIN-WALLED SECTIONS 561
8.5 Closed Single-Cell Thin-Walled Sections
8.5.1 Enclosed area
8.5.2 Bredt’s formula
8.5.3 Shear flow due to transverse shear
8.5.4 Solution procedure to obtain shear center in closed sections
8.6. ANALYSIS OF THIN-WALLED MULTI-CELL CLOSED SECTIONS 601
8.6 Analysis of Thin-walled Multi-Cell Closed Sections
8.6.1 Bending
8.6.2 Pure Torsion
8.6.3 Pure Shear
8.7. ANALYSIS OF COMBINED OPEN AND CLOSED THIN-WALLED SECTIONS 610
8.7 Analysis of Combined Open and Closed Thin-walled sec-
8.7.1 Bending
8.7.2 Pure Shear
8.7.3 Pure Torsion
8.8 References
8.9 Suggested Problems
9.1 Differential Work and Virtual Work
9.1.1 Differential Work
9.1.2 Virtual Work
9.1.3 Complementary Virtual Work
9.2 Review of equations of linear elasticity
9.3 PVW for a System of Particles
9.3.1 Virtual Displacements
9.3.2 PVW of a particle
9.3.3 PVW for rigid and deformable bodies
9.3.4 Procedure
9.4. PVW FOR DEFORMABLE CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES 648
9.4 PVW for Deformable Continuous Structures
9.4.1 PVW for an Elastic Bar
9.4.2 PVW for an Elastic Truss Bar
9.4.3 Stiffness Influence Coefficients
9.4.4 Procedure
9.4.5 Strain Energy: Castigliano’s First Theorem
9.4.6 PVW for Beams
9.5 Principle of Complementary Virtual Work
9.6 PCVW for a System of Particles
9.7 PCVW for Continuous Deformable Bodies
9.7.1 PCVW for a Bar
9.7.2 PCVW for a Truss
9.7.3 Procedure
9.7.4 Complementary Strain Energy: Castigliano’s Second Theorem
9.7.5 PCVW for a Beam
9.7.6 PCVW for Frames
9.8 References
9.9 Suggested Problems
10.1 Uncertainties in Design
10.1.1 Design Safety factors
10.1.2 Margin of Safety
10.2. DUCTILE AND BRITTLE FAILURE THEORIES 792
10.2 Ductile and Brittle Failure Theories
10.3. 3-D STRESS STATE FAILURE THEORIES: BRITTLE MATERIALS 794
10.3 3-D Stress State Failure Theories: Brittle Materials
10.3.1 Maximum Normal Stress Criterion
10.3.2 Brittle Coulomb-Mohr Criterion
10.3.3 Comparison of MNS and BCM Criterions
10.4. 3-D STRESS STATE FAILURE THEORIES: DUCTILE MATERIALS 797
10.4 3-D Stress State Failure Theories: Ductile Materials
10.4.1 Aka Distortion Energy Criterion
10.4.2 Maximum Shear Stress Criterion
10.4.3 Comparison of DE and MSS Criterions
10.4.4 Ductile Coulomb-Mohr Criterion
10.5. INTRODUCTION TO FRACTURE MECHANICS 820
10.5 Introduction to Fracture Mechanics
10.5.1 Fracture of Cracked Members
10.5.2 Cracks as stress raisers
10.5.3 Fracture toughness
10.5.4 Fracture Mechanics: MODE I
10.5.5 Fracture Mechanics: Tables and Plots
10.5.6 Fracture Mechanics: Mixed Modes
10.5.7 Plastic zone size in cracked metal plates
10.5.8 Plastic zone
10.5.9 Plane stress
10.5.10 Plane strain
10.5.11 Plasticity limitations on LEFM
10.5.12 Fracture toughness in plane strain and plane stress
10.7 Suggested Problems
11.1 Vibration Analysis
11.1.1 Fundamental Natural Frequency
11.2 Impact
11.2.1 Assumptions
11.2.2 Freely falling body
11.2.3 Falling body with a velocity
11.2.4 Horizontally Moving Weight
11.2.5 Maximum Dynamic Load and Stress
11.3 Fatigue
11.3.1 Cyclic Stresses
11.3.3 Fully Reversed
11.3.4 Repeated (Tension)
11.3.5 Repeated (Compression)
11.4 Alternate and mean stresses
11.4.1 Ductile materials
11.4.2 Brittle materials
11.5 S–N Diagrams
11.5.1 Fatigue Regimens
11.5.2 Endurance Stress
11.5.3 Modified Endurance Stress
11.5.4 Stress concentration factor
11.5.5 Plotting S-N Diagrams
11.5.6 Fatigue Theories of Fatigue Failure
11.6 Cumulative fatigue damage
11.7 References
11.8 Suggested Problems
12.1. CONCEPT OF STABILITY OF EQUILIBRIUM 936
12.1 Concept of Stability of Equilibrium
12.1.1 Buckling
12.1.2 Stability of equilibrium
12.1.3 Various Equilibrium Configurations
12.1.4 Methods of stability analysis
12.2 Stability of Rigid Bars
12.2.1 Analysis of a Perfect System
12.2.2 Analysis of an Imperfect System
12.3 Stability of Beam-Columns
12.3.1 Perfect Beam-Columns (Adjacent Equilibrium Method)
12.3.2 Several Type of Column End Constraint
12.3.3 Imperfect Beam-Columns (Adjacent Equilibrium Method)
12.3.4 Perfect Beam-Column (Energy Approach)
12.3.5 Inelastic Buckling
12.4 References
12.5 Suggested Problems
13.1 Definitions
13.2 Static Aeroelasticity
13.2.1 Divergence Analysis of A Rigid Wing
13.2.2 Divergence Analysis of Flexible Straight Wings
13.2.3 Divergence Analysis of Flexible Swept Wings
13.2.4 Aileron Reversal speed
13.3 The flight envelops
13.3.1 Basic Maneuver V–n Diagram: No gust loads
13.3.2 Wing Design
13.3.3 Design Gust Load Factors
13.4 References
13.5 Suggested Problems
A.1 What is MATLAB
A.1.1 Getting Familiar with MATLAB
A.1.2 Basic commands and syntax
A.1.3 MATLAB Help command
A.1.4 M-Files
A.1.5 Programming in MATLAB
A.1.6 Diary on and diary off
A.1.7 Graphical Display of Functions
A.1.8 Final Remarks on MATLAB
A.2 Linear Algebra
A.2.1 Matrices
A.2.2 Vectors
A.2.3 Matrix and Vector Operations
A.2.4 General Rules for Matrix Operations
A.2.5 Norm of a Vector
A.3 Solution to Linear System of Equations
A.4 Polynomial Approximation
A.4.1 Lagrange Interpolation Functions
A.4.2 Newton Interpolating Polynomial
A.4.3 Hermite Interpolation Polynomial
A.5 Roots of polynomials
A.5.1 Linear Equations
A.5.2 Quadratic Equations
A.5.3 Cubic Equations
A.6 Eigenvalue Problem
A.7 References
A.8 Suggested Problems
B.1 Mohr’s Circle in Stress Analysis
B.2 Procedure for the Mohr’s Circle
B.3 Mohr’s Circle in Three-Dimensional Stresses
(b) Mohr’s circle for plane stress in the x-y plane
B.4 Final Remarks
B.5 References
B.6 Suggested Problems
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Aircraft Structures for Engineers

Aircraft Structures for Engineers

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Published by Vignesh Meganathan

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Published by: Vignesh Meganathan on Jun 27, 2012
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