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CHITIN FROM JAMAICAN CRUSTACEANS

CHITIN FROM JAMAICAN CRUSTACEANS

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Published by ROBERT FOWLES
chitin: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATON. DSC, INAA, TGA, IR, NMR
chitin: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATON. DSC, INAA, TGA, IR, NMR

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: ROBERT FOWLES on Jan 08, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/19/2013

 
CHITIN:ISOLATION ANDCHARACTERISATION
A ThesisSubmitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Philosophy in Chemistryof The University of the West IndiesbyRobert George FowlesOctober 1999Department of ChemistryFaculty of Pure and Applied Sciences
 
Mona Campus
 
i
ABSTRACT
This thesis describes the isolation and characterisation of chitin obtainedfrom the exoskeleton of five Jamaican arthropods. These were the crustaceansmarine spiny lobster (
 Panulirus argus),
the land crab (
Gecarcinus ruricola
), themarine blue crab (
Callinectes sapidus
) and the giant Malaysian fresh water prawn(
Macrobracium rosenberg 
). The other arthropod investigated was the drummer cockroach
 Blaberus discoidalis
.Isolation of chitin from crustacean shells involved acid digestion of calcium salts, present in these shells followed by base hydrolysis of the shell proteins. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), weight loss procedures, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) were the techniquesinvolved in the quantification of the isolated chitin.INAA allowed for the elemental composition of the shell samples to bedetermined. Shells were shown to contain calcium, sodium, potassium, bromine,aluminium, manganese and chlorine. With the use of Gas Chromatography MassSpectrometry (GCMS) organic compounds like amines, high molecular weightcarboxylic acid and alkanes were also indicated. Complexation was shown to be aworkable alternative to acid digestion.The percent content of calcium expressed as calcium carbonate of theshells of the marine spiny lobster, land crab, blue crab and the giant Malaysianfresh water prawn was determined to be 42, 70, 65 and 47%, respectively.The digestion efficiency for extraction of calcium varied significantly withspecies, as well as with the strength of the acid and the digestion time used.
 
ii
Standard acid hydrolysis was not effective in removing all calcium compoundsfrom the shells of some species of crustaceans.The percentage by weight of chitin obtained from these crustacean shellswere found to be; Lobster 21%, land crab 18%, blue crab 19% and prawn 35%.Characterisation involved the use of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)), Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM), carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy and Infrared analysis. TGA and DSC showthat chitin is stable up to 394 °C. SEM showed by photographs the fibrous natureof chitin. Carbon-13 NMR analysis showed chemical shift values that comparedwell with literature values for glucose and IR analysis showed the characteristichydroxide band (3450 cm
 –1
) and amide absorption band (1655 cm
 –1
) associatedwith chitin.Characterisation of chitin also involved determination of the percentage N-acetyl content (% N-Ac) by the use of two infrared analysis techniques where(% N-Ac = A
1655
/A
3450
×
115) and (% N-Ac
=
A
1655
/A
3450
×
100/1.33). A typicalisolation process to produce chitin showed varying percent N-acetyl content,which is affected by the alkaline conditions of the hydrolysis step as well as themethod of calculation.The conversion of chitin to chitosan was also a method of characterisationof chitin where chitosan was soluble in dilute acetic acid.Key words: chitin,
 
crustacean shells
 
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis,weight loss, and calcium carbonate.
 

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