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P. 1
Unlawful Coercion, 2 Counts of Sexual Molestation, Rape: Opinion of Professor Andrew Ashworth

Unlawful Coercion, 2 Counts of Sexual Molestation, Rape: Opinion of Professor Andrew Ashworth

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Published by maryroseeng

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Published by: maryroseeng on Jun 28, 2012
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07/23/2014

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1
EUROP~ANARRESTWARRANTrelatingtoJULIANPAULASSANGE
ExpertO)iwon
08
thefour
alleged
offeaees
IpeclfiedidtheArrest
Warrant
(wIth
some
additloD~remarks
relating
to
thecomplainants'statements),and
their
impJludoDs·5uEnglishlaw.Opinion·)ofProfessorAndrewAshworthCBIC,QC(Hon),DCL,FDA.VmeriaDProfessorofEnglbhLaw
in
th~UniversityofOxford.
fC-
J
1.I
amthe
Vinerian
Professor
of
English
Law
in
the
Universityof
Oxfordand
author
of
anumberof
books
and
articles
Oft
the
criminallaw.including
Principles
0/
CrIminal
Law
(61'11
d,
2009)
andtheleading(co-authored)articleonRape,Sexual
Assaults
and~ProblemsofConsent'[Z004)
Criminal
Law
Review
328-346.
J
waseditor
of
the
CriminalLawReview
from1976to1999,andI
amnow
aCaseCommentator.Iwas
·a
member
oftheCriminalCommittee
of
theJudicialStudiesBoardfrom2001-2008,
~gavesomelecturesattheJSB'sSeriousSexualOffencesseminar.Ihave
been
.asked
by
FinersStephensInnocent,lawyersforMr.Assange,formyexportopinion
aD.
questionsofdoublecriminalityarisingfromtheextraditioncaseofJu1ianAssange.
f,((-.-
't.._
2.
IUnderstand
my
dutiesasanexpertwitness
and
that
the
purposeofthis
report
Is
to
assist
the
court.
1
canconfirm
that
itscontentsare
true
to
the
best
of
my
knowledge
,*dbelief.3.I
\Vas
first
askedtoconsiderthedoublecriminalityissuesolelyonthebasisof
the
allegations
set
out
in
the
EuropeanArrestWarrant("EA
W,)
issued
by
aSwedbh
,
rrosecutor
againstMr.Assange.
My
opinion,on
that
basis,
issetoutbelow,
That
is
theprimaI)'focusofthisopinion,4.T
?'8S
subsequently
askedtoconsider.
in
relationtotheProsecution'sIU'gmnent
that
it
is
permissibletojnfer
allegations
of
merurea
in
this
eese,
thecomplainan1S~
statements,
with
aviewtoconsideringwhethertheallegations
in
thosestatements
-------------------
1
 
2
2
provided
abasisforinferring
mensrea.
J
haveindicated
in
the
tex.t
whereI
base
my
opinionon
those
statementsaswell.
5.
lIi~preparhtg
thisopinion,
r
have
had
access
to
the
EA
W.
theProsecutor's
stateme.nt
berorc
theSveaCourt
ot
Appeal
(referredtoinbox(b)ofthe
BAW),
the
Prosecunon's
Opening
Noteand(subsequently)the
stRterDents
of
the
two
co~lainanlS.
r
6.~eprosecutionis
relyingonfouroffences.
and
thesewillbediscussed
seriatim.
{.l.
ADegationof"UnlawfulCoercion"7.ThecrucialissueforrelevantEnglish
offences
is
consent.Thewording
of
theEAW
(EuropeanArrest
Warrant)
refers
to
'violence'
and
'force'.
altb(:lUgh
itisnotataU
clear
how
the
partiescame
to
be
in.
the
position
described.
However,
taking
the
allegation
at
facevalue,therelevantoffenceinEnglishlawwould
be
sexualassault.
~s"isanoffenceagainstsection
3
oftheSexual
Offences
Act2003.
which
provides
thBt
A
person
(A)
commits
this
oftence
if:
:a)HeintcntionaJIytouchesanotherperson
(B).
:b)Thetouching
is
sexual
c)
B
doesnot
consent
10
the
touching,and
d)A
doesnot
re&q()nablybelieve
that
Bconsents.'
8.
ASsuming
that
therewasatouching.itwouldonlyconstitute
tho
offenceundersection3
·ofthe
2003Act
if
it
wereprovedthatthe
complainantdidnotconsent
and,
mostsignificanliY7
tbat
Mr
Assangedid
not
reasonablybelieve
that
she
wasconsenting.
.The
BAW
fails
to
includeany
reference
to
themental
eleMentof
Mr
Assanae
at
the
time,
whereas
this
mental
element
is
crucial
to
the
question
wbetller
tbis
allegation
disclosesanoffenceunderEnglishlaw.Even
if
it
were
establishedthat
the
tou.cbing
was
'sexual,'thereisnooffence
ifit
was
consensualor
reasonably
believedto
be
censensuel,
 
3
9.rtiestatementofthecomplainantAAseems
to
suggestthat
DS
soonasMr
Assange
askedM$Awhyshewas
squeezing
herJegs
together
andshereplJed
that
she
wanted
hun
to
puton
a.
condom,heagreedtodoso.
It
isthereforequiteplausiblethat,before
h~
made
this
request,
bereasonably
believedthatshe
was
consenting
to
the
touching
I
-bavingallowedMr
Assange
totake
on'
allherclothes
and
having
lain
down
on
her
bfWk.
(
2.
Allegationof
"SexualMQlestatlQU"
10.
1l:leoffence"ofrape
andsexualpenetretlon,contrarytosections1
and
2
Of
the
SexualOffencesAct2003,shouldbeconsideredinrelation
to
this
alJegation.
Sexual
intercoursetookplace,anditappears
not
to
be
allegedthatthesexitself
WBS
other~consensual.The
key
argumentjsthatthe
complainant
had
made
it
clear
thAt
acondomshouldbe
used.
and
thatatsomestageitwasnotused.
11.Forpresentpurposes,therelevant
elements
of
the
twooffences
of
rape
and
ofsexual
penetrationarethesame.Thus.according
to
sections1and
2
of
the
SexualOffences
A¢t
2003
theprosecutionmu~1
estabHsh:
a)intentionalpenetration,
b)
Bbsenceofconsent
by
the
complainant.and
c)absenceofa
reasonablebeliefby
thedefendant
that
the
complainantwas
consenting.
12.
Thefirstquestionarises
underb).as
to
whether
there
wasconsentSection76(2)(a)conclusivelypresumesalackofconsentwhere
'the
defendant
intentionally
deceived
3

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