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Bracing Design to Eurocode 3

Bracing Design to Eurocode 3

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Published by Greg Rabulan
Guide to steel bracing design.
Guide to steel bracing design.

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Published by: Greg Rabulan on Jun 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Advance Design – Bracing members design according to Eurocode 3
Author: Eng. Victor Seiculescu 
, PhD student Advance Design was specifically developed for industry professionals that require a superior solution for the structural analysis and design of Reinforced Concrete and Steel structures according to the latest versions of Eurocodes (EC0, EC1,EC2, EC3 and EC8).Advance Design features include easy modeling, a powerful FEM analysis engine,top-level design wizards, automated post-processing of results and automated reports. Achieve a new level of computer-assisted engineering with Advance Design! 
The goal of this article is to present the efficiency of automatic calculus (done with Advance Design) insteadof manual calculus for verifying the bracing members against buckling. Automatic calculus is done for a multi-story steel concentrically braced frame building subjected to seismic action according to Romanian SeismicCode (P100-1/2006). In this structure the most solicited bracing member is studied. The verification resultsobtained through automatic calculus are in good agreement with manual calculus.
General information about steel concentrically braced frames
The most commonly used configurations of Steel Concentrically Braced Frames (CBF) are illustrated inFigure 1.
b c de f g h
: According to P100-1/2006 (Romanian seismic design code), K bracings, in which the diagonals intersection lies on a column (see case 
 ), are not allowed.
Figure 1: Vertical bracing
Victor Seiculescu is Advance Design specialist atGRAITEC Romania
 Steel Concentrically Braced Frames are strong, stiff and ductile, and are therefore ideal for seismic framingsystems. The quality of the seismic response of Concentrically Braced Frames is determined by theperformance of the brace. To achieve the best performance from a CBF, the brace must fail before any othercomponent of the frame does. This is important because although the frame may sustain significant damageduring an earthquake, it is expected to remain stable and the building must be capable of resisting gravityloads and of withstanding aftershocks without collapse.
: Slender braces ( 
 ) are more susceptible to buckling than stocky ones and their failure can damage non-structural elements ( 
 ). On the other hand, strong braces can increase the risk of brittle failure of their connections ( 
Figure 2: Failure of concentric bracing members [7],[8]
 Cyclic testing of conventional braced frames, done by Nathan Canney at Seattle University, showed thatthese braces buckle in compression and yield in tension. He showed the following inelastic behavior ofbracing member:
Plastic hinges occur after the brace has buckled and the stiffness and resistance of the framedecreases, illustrated in Figure 3;
In Zone 0-A, the frame retains its elasticity, but the brace buckles at A, causing a plastic hinge toform in Zone A-B;
Load reversal in Zones B-C, C-D and D-E cause the brace to become unstable, decreasing theeffectiveness of the frame. This unstable behavior is evident in the unsymmetrical response seenin Figure 3a. For this reason, Concentrically Braced Frames (CBFs), with braces in opposingpairs, are used given the stable inelastic performance seen in Figure 3c.
Figure 3: Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames [1]

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