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Sheet#3 Music117

Sheet#3 Music117

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Published by Jing Zhao

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Categories:Types, Sheet Music
Published by: Jing Zhao on Jun 28, 2012
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SHEET 3: REVIEW OF THE CONCEPTS FROM MUSIC 116 (III)
Intervals:
An
interval 
is the relationship in pitch between two tones. Intervals are named by the number of diatonic notes (noteswith different letter names) that can be contained within them. For example, the whole step G to A contains only twodiatonic notes (G and A) and is called a second.
 
The following figure shows all the numbers within an octave used to identify intervals: Notice that the interval numbers shown in the above example correspond to the scale degree numbers for the major scale.The interval numbered “1” (two notes of the same pitch) is called a
unison.
Perfect, Major and Minor Intervals
The intervals below which include the tonic and the fourth and fifth scale degrees of a major scale are called
 perfect.
In addition, the unison and the octave are called
 perfect.
 
The intervals from the tonic in an upward direction to the second, to the third, to the sixth, and to the seventh scaledegrees of a major scale are called
major.
 
 Notice the standard abbreviations for intervals in above examples. For example, P1 = perfect unison, M2 = major second.
 
When a major interval is made one half step smaller, it becomes
minor.
This can be done either by raising the bottomnote or lowering the top note. Notice the standard abbreviation for minor intervals: a lower case “m” followed by an interval number.
 
Major, minor,and perfect intervals are illustrated below.
 
 
Consonance and Dissonance:
The terms
consonance
and
dissonance
are defined in a variety of ways, depending on the context. In acoustics, theconsonances are those intervals that are found as the lower members of the harmonic series
1
. We will define the termconsonance in a musical sense as intervals that are treated as stable and not requiring resolution. The consonantintervals are the P1, m3, M3, P5, m6, M6, and P8. All other intervals within the octave are considered dissonant.
Augmented and Diminished Intervals
If a perfect or major interval is made one half step larger (without changing its interval number) it becomes
augmented.
If a perfect or minor interval is made one half step smaller (without changing its interval number) it becomes
diminished.
 Notice the standard abbreviations for augmented and diminished intervals. For example, d3 = diminished third and A3 =augmented third.
Enharmonic Intervals:
 Enharmonic intervals
are intervals with the same sound that are spelled differently. Such intervals result, of course,from enharmonic tones/notes. All of the following intervals sound identical but are spelled differently.You must take care in spelling intervals. If a specific interval is requested, the enharmonic equivalent spelling is notcorrect. Thus, if a major third above E is called for, A-flat is not correct, even though it sounds the same as G-sharp. If a perfect fifth above F is called for, B-sharp is not correct, even though it sounds the same as C.1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic_series_(music)

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