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Pec e 051900

Pec e 051900

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 Journal of Industrial Technology Volume 16, Number 3 May 2000 to July 2000 www.nait.org
The Official Electronic Publication of the National Association of Industrial Technology • www.nait.org© 2000
A Hybrid Solar-Wind Power Generation System as an Instructional Resource for Industrial Technology Students 
 By Dr. Recayi Pecen, Dr. MD Salim, & Dr. Marc TimmermanVolume 16, Number 3 - May 2000 to July 2000
 Reviewed Article
Electricity Electronics Energy Environmental Issues Teaching Methods 
 Journal of Industrial Technology Volume 16, Number 3 May 2000 to July 2000 www.nait.org
Dr. Recayi Pecen holds a B.S.E.E. and an M.S. in Con- trols and Computer Engineering from the Istanbul Technical University, an M.S.E.E. from the University of Colorado at Boulder, and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engi- neering from the University of Wyoming. Dr. Pecenis an Assistant Professor in the Department of Indus- trial Technology at the University of Northern Iowa.Dr. Pecen is the recipient of  University of Wyoming,G. Nicholson Power System Lab Scholarship in 1996,recipient of Provost’s two Mini-Grants for Achieving Educational Excellence, in 1999 and 2000, and re- cipient of UNI Summer Fellowship in wind/PV power systems. Dr. Pecen is a member of Tau Beta Pi- National Engineering Honor Society, IEEE, and NAIT.His research interests and publications are in theareas of AC/DC power systems, HVDC transmission,power system control, power quality, and grid-con- nected wind/PV renewable energy systems.Dr. MD Salim holds a B.S. in Civil Engineering fromthe Bangladesh Institute of Technology, an M.S. inConstruction Engineering from the University of Leeds (UK) and a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from theNorth Carolina State University. He has served innumerous industrial positions and on the faculty of the University of Northern Iowa. His research inter- ests and publications are in the applications of arti- ficial intelligence to construction management.Dr. Marc A. Timmerman holds a B.S.E.E. from theSanta Clara University, a M.Eng.E.E. from theRensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and a Ph.D. fromthe George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engi- neering at Georgia Tech. He has served on the fac- ulties of the University of Tulsa, the Louisiana StateUniversity at Baton Rouge, and the University of Northern Iowa. His research publications are in thearea of embedded microprocessors and DSP,Mechatronics, vibrations, and magnetic bearings.
A Hybrid Solar-Wind Power Generation System as an In- structional Resource for In- dustrial Technology Students 
 By Dr. Recayi Pecen, Dr. MD Salim, & Dr. Marc Timmerman
The detailed study of electricalpower systems is a key element of manycurricula in Industrial Technology. Anovel laboratory set-up has beendesigned and implemented at theUniversity of Northern Iowa as aninstructional resource for teachingelectrical power system and renewableenergy concepts. The set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mastmounted wind generator, lead-acidstorage batteries, an inverter unit toconvert DC power to AC power,electrical lighting loads and electricalheating loads, several fuse and junctionboxes and associated wiring, and testinstruments for measuring voltages,currents, power factors, and harmoniccontamination data throughout thesystem. This hybrid solar-wind powergenerating system is extensively used toillustrate electrical concepts in hands-onlaboratories and demonstrations in theIndustrial Technology curriculum.
Electricity cannot be seen, felt,tasted, smelled, heard or (safely)touched. Providing Industrial Technol-ogy students with vivid, memorable,hands-on learning experiences in thearea of electricity is a challenge for alleducators in the Industrial Technologyarea. The traditional measuring instru-ments for electricity (oscilloscopes,voltmeters, ammeters, and powermeters) and traditional signal sources(motors, transformers, resistors, induc-tors) are fine but have some drawbacks:They have a tendency to becomerepetitive and boring.They have an artificial, educa-tional non-real-world feel.They may fail to convey the notionof the true complexity and interre-lations of industrial electricalpower systems.They may not capture thestudent’s attention and motivatelearning.They may not give an intuitivefeeling for what electrical quanti-ties
mean physically.Iowa is a geographically large statewith a low population density. Electri-cal power needs are supplied by a largenumber of local power companies.Due to the isolation of many dwellings,agricultural sites, and industrial sites,there is considerable interest in novelforms of electricity production. Twosuch forms of production are solarphoto-voltaic (PV) cells based on DC-power generating arrays and wind-turbines based on propeller-driven DC-power generators. In fact, Iowa is nowthe home of the largest wind-turbinepower installation in the world (Pecen,1999). Electrical power generation andspecial sources of electric power, likewind-turbines, are frequently discussedin the public media and are veryvividly in the minds of IndustrialTechnology students from daily-lifeexperiences. The additional factor of the general concern and interest forenvironmental issues is a furtherenticement to attract the student’sinterest in these “green-technology”forms of electricity generation.
Special Educational Issues of Wind-turbines and Photo-Voltaic Cells
As the wind does not blow all thetime nor does the sun shine all the time,solar and wind power alone are poor
 Journal of Industrial Technology Volume 16, Number 3 May 2000 to July 2000 www.nait.org
power sources. Hybridizing solar andwind power sources together withstorage batteries to cover the periods of time without sun or wind provides arealistic form of power generation.This variable feature of wind-turbine power generation is differentfrom conventional fossil fuel, nuclear,or hydro-based power generation.Wind energy has become the leastexpensive renewable energy technol-ogy in existence and has peaked theinterest of scientists and educators theworld over. A simple relationship existsrelating the power generated by awind-turbine and the wind parameters:P = 0.5
= air density (about 1.225 kg/m
atsea level, less at higher eleva-tions).
= rotor swept area, exposed to thewind (m
).Cp = Coefficient of performance(.59 to .35 depending on turbine).v = wind speed in meters/sec
= generator efficiency
= gearbox/bearings efficiencyA mast-mounted anemometer(wind meter) allows the students todirectly measure wind speed and tovividly relate this easily felt force-of-nature to electrical measurements.Photo-Voltaic or PV cells, knowncommonly as solar cells, convert theenergy from sunlight into DC electricity.PVs offer added advantages over otherrenewable energy sources in that theygive off no noise and require practicallyno maintenance. PV cells are a familiarelement of the scientific calculatorsowned by many students. Their operat-ing principles and governing relation-ships are unfortunately not as pedagogi-cally simple as that of wind-turbines.However, they operate using the samesemiconductor principles that governdiodes and transistors and the explana-tion of their functioning is straightfor-ward and helps to make more intuitivemany of the principles covered insemiconductor electronic classes.Most industrial uses of electricityrequire AC or alternating 60 Hz power.Wind-turbines and PV cells provideDC power. A semiconductor-baseddevice known as a power inverter isused to convert the DC power to ACpower. This device has a relativelysimple operation that is a vivid illustra-tion of many topics traditionallycovered in power electronics classes.The inverter also introduces theproblem of power quality. Powerquality is an extremely important issuein real-life industrial electric powersystems. Power quality is the contami-nation of the voltage or frequencycharacteristics of electric power. Thesystem exhibits many common prob-lems of power quality such as voltagesag (sudden drops in voltage due toover demand of battery capacity and/orloss of wind or sun), harmonic con-tamination (errors in the 60 Hz fre-quency due to nonlinear loads such ascomputers, energy efficient light bulbs,laser printers, scanners), and voltageregulation problems (prolonged dropsin voltage due to interactions of systemelements). Power quality is anextremely important problem inindustrial electricity applications andthis setup offers unique opportunitiesfor the students to study power qualityproblems in a real system.Three major phases of the develop-ment and implementation of thisfacility have been completed. First, theset-up itself has been constructed anddebugged. Second instruments forhands-on measurement of electricalquantities in the system have beenacquired and deployed for hands-on labuse. And third, numerous simulationshave been performed on PSCAD/ EMTDC (1996), a well-known powersystem computer simulation packageused by industry and universities. Thissoftware allows the students to make anintuitive link between the physicalsystem present in the hands-on labs andthe more abstract mathematicalequations presented in their lecturenotes and texts. Two such simulationsare presented in this paper.
Literature Review
The literature in the subject areasof this paper is very extensive. Anexcellent textbook for instructional useis
Wind and Solar Power Systems
byPatel (1999) that covers the specificissues in this project in a style appro-priate for Industrial Technologystudents. Sabin (1999) and coworkershave summarized the various standardsand benchmarks used in large-scalepower quality, and Koval (1999) andcoworkers have presented similarfinding for rural (small-scale) powerquality problems. Many articles haveappeared on the impact of new elec-tronics technologies on power qualitymanagement, for example Poisson(1999) and coworkers have describedthe impact of DSP chips on the prob-lem. Barbosa (1998) and coworkershave described the use of PWM (pulse-width-modulation) control schemes topower quality control.Numerous studies have appeareddescribing the impact of power qualityproblems caused by PV systems fromearly work by McNeil (1983) andcoworkers in to more recent work byOliva (1988) and coworkers and mostrecently by Chowdhury (1999). Theextensive literature on power qualityaspects of wind generation includeswork by Demoulias and Dokopoulos(1996) on transient power measurementand by Thiringer (1996) on harmoniccontamination measurement issues.Taylor (1987) is responsible for some of the early practical work on powerquality measurements in wind genera-tion. Kariniotakis and Stavrakakis(1995) have written extensively onsimulation problems in wind generatorand power grid interactions.Finally, many papers have beenwritten on the electronics regulation/ control aspects of the problem includ-ing a recent study by Neris and co-workers (1999) proposing an IGBT(Integrated-Base-Bipolar-Transistor)based regulator.
In order to address the shortcom-ings of existing instructional tech-niques for electrical power systems, ahybrid wind-turbine and solar cellsystem has been implemented at theUniversity of Northern Iowa. Thesystem was designed and implementedwith the following goals:

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