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Sensitivity of the QBO to Climate Change

Sensitivity of the QBO to Climate Change

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Published by Martin C. Doege
My diploma thesis: "Sensitivity of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation to Climate Change" (Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hamburg)
My diploma thesis: "Sensitivity of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation to Climate Change" (Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hamburg)

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Published by: Martin C. Doege on Jan 11, 2008
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10/12/2011

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Sensitivity of theQuasi-Biennial Oscillationto Climate Change
Martin C. Doege
Diplomarbeit im Fach Meteorologieangefertigt am Max-Planck-Institut f ¨ur Meteorologie,Hamburg
Betreuer:Dr. Marco A. GiorgettaGutachter:Prof. Dr. Guy P. BrasseurDr. Olaf Kr¨ugerHamburg im Oktober 2003
 
False-color image of Eastern Asia and the Western Pacific in thermal infraretaken by GOES-9 at 155 degrees East above the equator on September 21st, 2003 at 12:00 UTC. The high and thus cold cloudtops (colored in white) associated with deeptropical convection are quite apparent in the Indonesian warm pool” region as well as over the Pacific. These mesoscale systems generate internal gravity waves thaconstitute a major part of the forcing driving the quasi-biennial oscillation. Heading east-northeast along the coast of Japan is typhoon 
Choi-wan
, showing a prominent eye.Grayscale image decoded from the Eumetsat WEFAX transmission by the
Departmentof Electron Devices and Circuits
at the University of Ulm.
 
Contents
1 Introduction 5
1.1 The QBO in observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2 Theory of the QBO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.3 Simulation of the QBO with General Circulation Models . . . . . 81.4 CO
2
concentration and and IPCC assessment of climate change . 91.5 The Brewer-Dobson circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.6 Motivation for this thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2 The MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model 15
2.1 The ECHAM lineage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2 Modifications for middle atmosphere modelling . . . . . . . . . . 172.3 Model equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.4 Parameterizations related to the QBO forcing . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3 Experimental setup 19
3.1 Climatological boundary conditions for SST and sea ice cover . . 213.2 Initial conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4 The Control experiment 335 Run001 results 37
5.1 Zonal mean zonal wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375.2 Residual circulation and forcing by resolved waves . . . . . . . . 415.3 Derivation of the gravity wave RMS wind parameter . . . . . . . 445.4 Summary of experiment Run001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6 Run002 and Run003 results 51
6.1 Zonal mean zonal wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516.2 Forcing by resolved and parameterized waves . . . . . . . . . . . 546.3 Vertical and meridional structure of the QBO . . . . . . . . . . . 586.4 Extratropical eects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7 Summary and conclusion 69
7.1 Future directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
A The Transformed Eulerian Mean and theEliassen-Palm ux 73
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