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THE EU LAW

THE EU LAW

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Published by Aneta Zab

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Published by: Aneta Zab on Jun 28, 2012
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HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
Beginnings: war and peace
For centuries, Europe was the scene of frequent and bloody wars. In the period 1870 to 1945, Franceand Germany fought each other three times, with terrible loss of life. A number of European leaders became convinced that the only way to secure a lasting peace between their countries was to unitethem economically and politically.So, in 1950, in a speech inspired by Jean Monnet, the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed integrating the coal and steel industries of Western Europe. A a result, in 1951,
the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
was set up, with six members: Belgium, WestGermany, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Its purpose was to pool the steel and coalresources of the member states, thus preventing another European war. The power to take decisionsabout the coal and steel industry in these countries was placed in the hands of an independent,supranational body called the "High Authority". Jean Monnet was its first President.
From three Communities to the EU
The ECSC was such a success that, within a few years, these same six countries decided to go further and integrate other sectors of their economies. In 1957 they signed the Treaties of Rome, creating the
 European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)
and
the European Economic Community (EEC).
The member states set about removing trade barriers between them and forming a "common market".The purpose of the EEC was to establish acustoms unionamong the six founding members, based onthe
"four freedoms":
freedom of movement of 
 goods, services, capital and people.
Euratom was to pool the non-military nuclear resources of the states. The EEC was by far the most important of thethree communities, so much so that it was later renamed simply
the
 
In 1967 the institutions of the three European communities were merged. From this point on, therewas a single Commission and a single Council of Ministers as well as the European Parliament.Originally, the members of the European Parliament were chosen by the national parliaments but in1979 the first direct elections were held, allowing the citizens of the member states to vote for thecandidate of their choice. Since then, direct elections have been held every five years.The Treaty of Maastricht (1992) introduced new forms of co-operation between the member stategovernments - for example on defence, and in the area of "justice and home affairs". By adding thisinter-governmental co-operation to the existing "Community" system, the Maastricht Treaty created
the European Union (EU).
 
Integration means common policies
Economic and political integration between the member states of the European Union means thatthese countries have to take joint decisions on many matters. So they have developed
common policies
in a very wide range of fields - from agriculture to culture, from consumer affairs tocompetition, from the environment and energy to transport and trade.In the early days the focus was on a common commercial policy for coal and steel and a commonagricultural policy. Other policies were added as time went by, and as the need arose. Some key policy aims have changed in the light of changing circumstances. For example, the aim of theagricultural policy is no longer to produce as much food as cheaply as possible but to support farmingmethods that produce healthy, high-quality food and protect the environment. The need for environmental protection is now taken into account across the whole range of EU policies.
 
The European Union's relations with the rest of the world have also become important. The EUnegotiates major trade and aid agreements with other countries and is developing a Common Foreignand Security Policy.
The Single Market: banning the barriers
It took some time for the Member States to remove all the barriers to trade between them and to turntheir "common market" into a genuine
 single market 
in which
goods, services, people and capital 
could move around freely. The Single Market was formally completed at the end of 1992, thoughthere is still work to be done in some areas - for example, to create a genuinely single market infinancial services.During the 1990s it became increasingly easy for people to move around in Europe, as passport andcustoms checks were abolished at most of the EU's internal borders. One consequence is greater mobility for EU citizens. Since 1987, for example, more than a million young Europeans have takenstudy courses abroad, with support from the EU.
The Single Currency: the euro
In 1992 the EU decided to go for economic and monetary union (EMU), involving the introduction of a single European currency managed by a European Central Bank. The single currency -
the euro
- became a reality on 1 January 2002, when euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in
twelve
of the 15 countries of the European Union (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy,Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Finland).
The growing family
The EU has grown in size with successive waves of accessions.
Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined in 1973
followed by Greece in 1981,
Spain and Portugal in 1986 and
Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995.
The European Union welcomed ten new countries in 2004: Cyprus, the Czech Republic,Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.
Finally, Bulgaria and Romania in 2007.Croatia and Turkey began membership negotiations in 2005. To ensure that the enlarged EU cancontinue functioning efficiently, it needs a more streamlined system for taking decisions. That is whythe Treaty of Nice lays down new rules governing the size of the EU institutions and the way theywork. It came into force on 1 February 2003. It will be replaced by the new EU Constitution - if allEU countries approve this.
THE EUROPEAN UNION KEY INSTITUTIONS
The European Parliament (EP) is elected by the citizens of the European Union to represent their interests.Its origins go back to the 1950s and the founding treaties, and since 1979 its members have been directlyelected by the people they represent.Elections are held every five years, and every EU citizen who is registered as a voter is entitled to vote.Parliament thus expresses the democratic will of the Union's citizens (more than 455 million people), and itrepresents their interests in discussions with the other EU institutions. The present Parliament, elected inJune 2004, has 732 members from all 25 EU countries
 
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) do not sit in national blocks, but in seven Europe-wide political groups. Between them, they represent all views on European integration, from the strongly pro-federalist to the openly Eurosceptic.The European Parliament has three places of work: Brussels (Belgium), Luxembourg and Strasbourg(France). Luxembourg is home to the administrative offices (the ‘General Secretariat’). Meetings of thewhole Parliament, known as ‘plenary sessions’, take place in Strasbourg and sometimes in Brussels.Committee meetings are also held in Brussels.Parliament has
three main roles:
Passing European laws
– jointly with the Council in many policy areas. The fact that the EP isdirectly elected by the citizens helps guarantee the democratic legitimacy of European law.
Parliament exercises
democratic supervision
over the other EU institutions, and in particular theCommission. It has the power to approve or reject the nomination of commissioners, and it has theright to censure the Commission as a whole.
The power of the purse
. Parliament shares with the Council authority over the EU budget and cantherefore influence EU spending. At the end of the procedure, it adopts or rejects the budget in itsentirety.
1. Passing European laws
The most common procedure for adopting EU legislation is ‘codecision‘. This procedure places theEuropean Parliament and the Council on an equal footing and it applies to legislation in a wide range of fields.In some fields (for example agriculture, economic policy, visas and immigration), the Council alonelegislates, but it has to consult Parliament. In addition, Parliament’s assent is required for certain importantdecisions, such as allowing new countries to join the EU.Parliament also provides impetus for new legislation by examining the Commission’s annual wor programme, considering what new laws would be appropriate and asking the Commission to put forward proposals.
2. Democratic supervision
Parliament exercises democratic supervision over the other European institutions. It does so in several ways.When a new Commission takes office, its members are nominated by the EU member state governments butthey cannot be appointed without Parliament’s approval.Throughout its term of office, the Commission remains politically accountable to Parliament.More generally, Parliament exercises control by regularly examining reports sent to it by the Commission(the annual general report, reports on the implementation of the budget, etc.). Moreover, MEPs regularly ask the Commission questions which the commissioners are legally required to answer.Parliament also monitors the work of the Council: MEPs regularly ask the Council questions, and thePresident of the Council attends the EP’s plenary sessions and takes part in important debates.Parliament can examine petitions from citizens and set up committees of inquiry.
3. The power of the purse
The EU’s annual budget is decided jointly by Parliament and the Council. Parliament debates it in twosuccessive readings, and the budget does not come into force until it has been signed by the President of Parliament.

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