Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 2 (1) 45-50 (2008)ISSN : 0973-4643Review Article
ANTI-DIABETIC POTENTIAL AND INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS
K.A. Wadkar*, C.S Magdum, S.S.Patil and N.S.Naikwade
Appasaheb Birnale College of pharmacy, South shivaji nagar, Sangli, Maharashtra
08 November, 2007;
20 December, 2007
Abstract : The present article gives a general idea of diabetic mellitus, its treatment by using insulin, oral hypoglycaemic drugs and herbal drugs. Despite considerable progress in the treatment of diabetes by oral hypoglycaemic agents, search for newer drugs continues because the existing synthetic drugs have several limitations .The herbal drugs with antidiabetic activity are yet to be commercially formulated as modern medicines, even though they have been acclaimed for their therapeutic properties in the traditional systems of medicine.
Anti-diabetic activity, Herbal Drugs, Oral hypoglycaemic agents,Active chemical constituents.
Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterizedby inappropriate hyperglycemia caused by a relativeor absolute deficiency of insulin or by a resistance tothe action of insulin at the cellular level. It is the mostcommon endocrine disorder, affecting 16 millionindividuals in the United States and as many as 200million worldwide. Diabetes has been a clinical modelfor general medicine. The primary defect in fuelmetabolism results in widespread, multi-organcomplications that ultimately encompass virtually everysystem of the body and every specialty of medicine.It has been said that to know diabetes is to knowmedicine and health care. Although from a clinicalstandpoint this may be true, our increasing knowledgeof the pathophysiology of the syndrome, together withthe mechanisms of long- term complications, hasplaced diabetes research at the frontier of immunologyand molecular biology.
Diabetes mellitus has been known since ages and thesweetness of diabetic urine has been mentioned inAyurveda by Sushruta. Its pharmacotherapy howeveris over 80 years old. The word diabetes was coined bythe Greek physician Aeretaeus in the first centuryA.D.In the 17
century, Willis observed that the urine of diabetics as wonderfully sweet as if imbued with honeyor sugar. The presence of sugar in the urine of diabeticswas demonstrated by Dobson in 1755.
Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting around 2-3 %of the population worldwide. Unfortunately, after theintroduction of sulfonylurea and metformin about 50years back no major lead has been obtained in thisdirection of finding a proper drug for diabetes. Plantmaterials which are being used as traditional medicinefor the treatment of diabetes are considered one of the good sources for a new drug or a lead to make anew drug. Plant extract or different folk plantpreparations are being prescribed by the traditionalpractioners and also accepted by the users fordiabetes like for any other diseases in many countriesespecially in third world countries. Now-a days morethan 400 plants are being used in different forms forhypoglycaemic effects all the claims practitioners orusers are neither baseless nor absolutely. Therefore,a proper scientific evaluation a screening of plant bypharmacological tests followed by chemicalinvestigations is necessary.
Some plants having hypoglycemic activity asstudied by Nahar
(Table no-1)Diabetes mellitus is wide spread disorder, which haslong been in the history of medicine .Before the adventof insulin and oral hypoglycaemic drugs the major formof treatment involved the use of the plants. But nowfrom the last two decades there has been a new trend