THE MEANING OF COUNSELING
Glanz (1972) defines counseling as an
-ended, face to faceproblem solving situation within which a student, with professionalassistance, can focus and begin to solve a problem or
Rogers (1965) speaks of counseling as the assistance which comes to achild through face to face contact, with a professionally trainedperson in a psychological relationship using either talk or play as theprimary medium of communication. He also speaks of counseling as arelationship in which one of the parties has the intent of promotingthe growth, development , maturity and improved functioning of theorder.
Shostrom and Brammer reinforced by defining counseling as “a
purposeful, reciprocal relationship between two people in which one,a trained person, helps the other to change himself for his
According to Brewer (1933) “counseling is talking over, a conference,
a friendly discussion, upon as equal terms as may be, with no attmptto impose a decision, and with every effort to stimulate the thought ofthe student to find or generate such technical knowledge and wisdom
as will lead him to a right decision.”
Counseling is both a process and a relationship.As a process, it uses appropriate tools and procedures whichcontribute to the experiences. It is also a relationshipcharacterized by trust, confidence and intimacy.
THE NATURE OF COUNSELING
Ford and Urban cited four natures of counseling:1.
Counseling involves two people in interaction2.
The mode of interaction is usually limited to the verbal realm; thecounselor and counselee talk with one another.3.
The interaction is relatively prolonged since alteration of behaviortakes time.4.
The purpose of the relationship is change in the behavior of thecounselee.These four major points highlight the fact that counseling is acollaborative relationship that permits counselees to freely expressand explore themselves and the issues which are of concern to them.
PURPOSES OF COUNSELING
According to Dunsmoor and Miller (1955), the purposes of counselingare:1.
To give students information on the matters important to hisadjustment and growth;2.
To get information about the student which will be of help to himin solving his problems;3.
To establish a feeling of mutual understanding between pupil andteacher;4.
To help the pupil work out a plan for solving his difficulties;5.
To help the pupil know himself better, his interests, abilities ,aptitudes and available opportunities;6.
To encourage special talents and develop right attitudes;7.
To inspire successful endeavor toward the attainment orrealization of objectives;8.
To assist the pupil in planning for his educational and vocationalchoices