and state agencies in disaster assistance planning, exercises, and operations in response to both natural and man-made disasters. Disaster assistance includes those humanitarian and civil defense activities, functions, and missions in which the Army has legal authority to act. The Army provides disaster assistance to states, the District of Columbia, territories, and possessions. Civil authorities must request assistance, usually as a result of disasters such as hurricanes, typhoons, earthquakes, or massive explosions.
Environmental assistance has been evolving since the 1960s. The Army has provided a variety of resources to meet environmental challenges that have emerged as a result of increased public concern and demands for the restoration, conservation, and protection of the environment. Typical Figure 1-1. Domestic Support missions are responding to hazardous material releases, restoring contaminated land and water, and conserving the nation's natural and cultural resources. With the passage of
The Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980
and the later development of The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan, the Army became a member of the national and regional response teams that plan for and respond to hazardous substance spills. The Army is inextricably linked to environmental stewardship. Its environmental assistance operations aid civil authorities in preserving, protecting, and enhancing the environment. Its strategy rests on the four pillars of compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation.
Compliance is responding to small-scale hazardous material spills and regulating support to other government agencies.
Restoration is cleaning up contamination from past operations.
Prevention is developing and sharing new technologies that reduce pollution generation.
Conservation focuses on the preservation of natural and cultural resources such as wetlands and wildlands.