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ARMY Pathfinder Operations FM 3-21.38 2002 172 Pages

ARMY Pathfinder Operations FM 3-21.38 2002 172 Pages

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HEADQUARTERSFIELD MANUALDEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYNo. 3-21.38
(FM 57-38)
PATHFINDER OPERATIONSOCTOBER 2002
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
 
*FM 3-21.38
(FM 57-38)
i
FIELD MANUALHEADQUARTERSNO. 3-21.38 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYWASHINGTON, DC.1 October 2002
CONTENTS
Page
Preface……………………………………………………………………………………..v
CHAPTER 1.INTRODUCTION
1-1. Employment.................................................................................1-11-2. Capabilities ..................................................................................1-11-3. Limitations...................................................................................1-21-4. Equipment....................................................................................1-21-5. Communications Security............................................................1-41-6. Training........................................................................................1-4
CHAPTER 2.OPERATIONS
Section I. Planning................................................................................................2-12-1. Warning Order.............................................................................2-12-2. Initial Preparation.........................................................................2-12-3. Coordination ................................................................................2-22-4. Linkup with Supported Unit........................................................2-42-5. Final Preparations........................................................................2-4Section II. Organization for Combat......................................................................2-52-6. Insertion.......................................................................................2-52-7. Overland Movement....................................................................2-62-8. Stay-Behind Operation ................................................................2-6Section III. Conduct of Operations..........................................................................2-62-9. Daylight Assault ..........................................................................2-62-10.Night Assault ...............................................................................2-62-11.Extraction.....................................................................................2-72-12.Staging Areas...............................................................................2-72-13.Artillery Displacement.................................................................2-72-14.Support of Ground Operations.....................................................2-72-15.Support of Air Force....................................................................2-82-16.Mixed Operations ........................................................................2-82-17.Radio Communications................................................................2-82-18.Terminal Guidance by Supported Units ......................................2-9Section IV. High-Threat Environment...................................................................2-102-19.Control and Navigation..............................................................2-102-20.Tactical Instrument Flights........................................................2-102-21.Air Routes..................................................................................2-10DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ____________________________________________ *This publication supersedes FM 57-38, 9 April 1993.
 
FM 3-21.38 (FM 57-38)
Page
ii
CHAPTER 3. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
Section I. Pathfinder Air Traffic...........................................................................3-13-1. Safety...........................................................................................3-13-2. Voice Control...............................................................................3-13-3. Formats ........................................................................................3-23-4. Numbers.......................................................................................3-33-5. Phrases and Terms .......................................................................3-3Section II. Landings ...............................................................................................3-33-6. Traffic Patterns.............................................................................3-33-7. Methods of Entry.........................................................................3-43-8. Traffic Pattern Legs.....................................................................3-83-9. Advisory Service..........................................................................3-83-10.Spacing Techniques.....................................................................3-93-11.Final Landing Instructions...........................................................3-93-12.Taxiing Aircraft .........................................................................3-113-13.Minimum Aircraft Separation Requirements.............................3-11Section III. Ground-To-Air Communications .......................................................3-113-14.Electronic Warfare Environment...............................................3-123-15.Ground-To-Air Transmissions...................................................3-13
CHAPTER 4.HELICOPTER LANDING ZONES
Section I. Selection of Landing Sites....................................................................4-14-1. Requirements...............................................................................4-14-2. Alternate Sites..............................................................................4-44-3. Landing Points.............................................................................4-4Section II. Organization and Duties.......................................................................4-54-4. Control Center..............................................................................4-54-5. Landing Site Party .......................................................................4-7Section III. Landing Site Operations.......................................................................4-94-6. Communications..........................................................................4-94-7. Flight Formations.........................................................................4-94-8. Landing Zone and Obstacle Marking ..........................................4-94-9. Air Assaults................................................................................4-104-10.Intercept Heading.......................................................................4-15Section IV. Landing Zone Operations...................................................................4-184-11.Communications Checkpoint.....................................................4-184-12.Air Control Points......................................................................4-19Section V. Night Operations.................................................................................4-204-13.Tactical Landing Lights.............................................................4-204-14.External Loads...........................................................................4-214-15.Multihelicopter Operations........................................................4-234-16.Night Vision Goggles ................................................................4-23Section VI. Environmental Considerations............................................................4-234-17.Pilot Input ..................................................................................4-234-18.Cold Weather.............................................................................4-234-19.Jungle.........................................................................................4-25

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