OLTP systems are optimized for INSERT, UPDATE operations and therefore highly normalized.On the other hand, OLAP systems are deliberately denormalized for fast data retrieval throughSELECT operations.
In a departmental shop, when we pay the prices at the check-outcounter, the sales person at the counter keys-in all the data into a"Point-Of-Sales" machine. That data is transaction data and therelated system is a OLTP system.On the other hand, the manager of the store might want to view areport on out-of-stock materials, so that he can place purchase orderfor them. Such report will come out from OLAP system
What is data mart?
Data marts are generally designed for a single subject area. An organization may have datapertaining to different departments like Finance, HR, Marketting etc. stored in data warehouseand each department may have separate data marts. These data marts can be built on top of the data warehouse.
What is ER model?
ER model is entity-relationship model which is designed with a goal of normalizing the data.
What is dimensional modeling?
Dimensional model consists of dimension and fact tables. Fact tables store differenttransactional measurements and the foreign keys from dimension tables that qualifies thedata. The goal of Dimensional model is not to achive high degree of normalization but tofacilitate easy and faster data retrieval.
What is dimension?
A dimension is something that qualifies a quantity (measure).If I just say… “20kg”, it does not mean anything. But 20kg of Rice (Product) is sold to Ramesh(customer) on 5th April (date), gives a meaningful sense. These product, customer and datesare some dimension that qualified the measure. Dimensions are mutually independent.