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Thermodynamics Notes 4

# Thermodynamics Notes 4

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12/12/2013

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Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and BolesChapter 4 -1
Chapter 4The First Law of Thermodynamics: Control Volumes
The conservation of mass and the conservation of energy principles for opensystems or control volumes apply to systems having mass crossing the system boundary or control surface. In addition to the heat transfer and work crossing thesystem boundaries, mass carries energy with it as it crosses the system boundaries. Thus, the mass and energy content of the open system may changewhen mass enters or leaves the control volume.Typical control volume or open systemThermodynamic processes involving control volumes can be considered in twogroups: steady-flow processes and unsteady-flow processes. During a steady-flow process, the fluid flows through the control volume steadily, experiencing nochange with time at a fixed position.
Mass Flow Rate
Mass flow through a cross section area per unit time is called the mass flow rate,
m
. It is expressed as
m V dA
n A
=
ρ
where
n
is the velocity normal to the cross sectional flow area.
Reference Plane
Q
net
Z
CM
CM
Control Surface
,
m
e e
,
m
i i

Z
e
Z
i
net

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and BolesChapter 4 -2
If the fluid density and velocity are constant over the flow cross sectional area, themass flow rate is
m V AV Av
avav
= =
ρ
where
ρ
is the density, kg/m
3
( = 1/v), A is the cross-sectional area, m
2
, and
av
isthe average fluid velocity normal to the area, m/s.
Example 4-1
Refrigerant-134a at 200 kPa, 40% quality flows through a 1.1 cm inside diameter,d, tube with a velocity of 50 m/s. Find the mass flow rate of the refrigerant-12.At P = 200 kPa, x = 0.4
v v xvmkg
f f
= += + =
0000753204009930000753200402
3
..(..).

/./(.).
mV Avvm sm kg mkg  s
av av
= ===
π π
232
45000402001140118

Chapter 4 Lecture notes for Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach

, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and BolesChapter 4 -3
The fluid volume flowing through a cross section per unit time is called thevolume flow rate
. The volume flow rate is given by integrating the product of the velocity normal to the flow area and the differential flow area over the flowarea. If the velocity over the flow area is a constant, the volume flow rate is given by (note we are dropping the “av” subscript on the velocity)
(/)
V VA m s
=
3 The mass and volume flow rate are related by
(/)
m vkg s
= =
ρ

Example 4-2
Air at 100 kPa, 50
o
C flows through a pipe with a volume flow rate of 40 m
3
/min.Find the mass flow rate through the pipe.Assume air to be an ideal gas, so
vRT  P kJ kg  K kPam kPakJ mkg
= =+=
028727310009270
33
.(50).

/min./min.
mvmm kg skg  s
= ==
40092701600719
33

Conservation of Mass for General Control Volume:
The conservation of mass principle for the open system or control volume isexpressed as