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Heterogenous Networks in LTE-Advanced

Heterogenous Networks in LTE-Advanced

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Published by Thinh T. Pham

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Published by: Thinh T. Pham on Jun 29, 2012
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Qualcomm CDMA Tec
Long-term Evolution (LTto use new and wider spectrum and complewith higher data rates, lower latency andarchitecture. To further improve the broadbain an ubiquitous and cost-effective mannerworking on various aspects of LTE-Advanceperformance is quickly approaching theoretienhancements and LTE, the next performafrom an evolved network topology. This paperfor an alternative deployment model anheterogeneous networks. The concept of LTheterogeneous networks is about improvingper unit area. Using a mix of macro, pico, feheterogeneous networks enable flexible and loand provide a uniform broadband experiencperformance of these networks, advancedescribed, which are needed to manage and cand deliver the full benefits of such networksinclude cell range expansion, adaptive intecoordination and interference cancellation rec
 Keywords Heterogeneous Networks, LTE-
 Data traffic demand in cellular networks texponentially. To achieve further performain LTE Advanced, 3GPP has been workingof LTE including higher order MIMO (mcarrier aggregation (multiple componenheterogeneous networks (picos, femtos,since improvementsin spectral efficienapproaching its theoretical limits in 3Genhancements are only possible by increasidensity of nodes.Current wireless cellular networks are typihomogeneous networks using a macroprocess. A homogeneous cellular system isstations in a planned layout, in which all thesimilar transmit power levels, antenna pattefloors and similar backhaul connectivity tonetwork. Moreover, all base stations offerto user terminals in the network. The locatbase stations are carefully chosen throughand the base stations are properly configurecoverage and control the interference betwethe traffic demand grows and the RF environhomogeneous network relies on cell splitcarriers to overcome capacity and link bud
s Networks in LTE-A
Invited Paper
Stefan Brueck 
hnologies GmbH, Nordostpark 89, 90411 Nurembergsbrueck@qualcomm.com
) allows operatorsents 3G networksa flat, IP-basednd user experience, 3GPP has been. Since radio linkcal limits with 3Gce leap will comediscusses theneedd topology using
E-Advanced basedspectral efficiencyto and relay cells,-cost deploymentse. To enhance thetechniques areontrol interference. These techniquesrcell interferenceivers.
day is increasingce improvementson various aspectsultiple antennas),t carriers), andelays). However,cy per link areand LTE, furtherg the deploymentcally deployed as-centric planninga network of basebase stations havens, receiver noisethe (packet) datanrestricted accessions of the macronetwork planning,to maximize theen each other. Asment changes, theing or additionalet limitations andmaintain uniform user experieprocess is complex and iteratfor macro base stations with tdifficult in dense urban ardeployment model isneedbroadband user experience inway.Wireless cellular systems havisolated system(with just ooptimal performance, as deterlimits. Future gains of wirelmore from advanced netwnetworks, utilizing a diversedeployed to improve the specheterogeneous cellular systemcellular system consists of rmacro base stations that typica(~ 5W100W), overlaid witand relay cells, which transmlevels (~ 100mW 2W).
Figure 1:
Heterogeneous netwofemto and
The low power cells can beholes in the macro-only systespots. Usually, three typesdistinguished:
Pico nodes are reguldifference of havintraditional macro cellwith omni-directionaindoors and outdoors i
Femto nodes are(unplanned) network with a backhaul facildigital subscriber li
, Germanynce. However, this deploymentive. Moreover, site acquisitionowers becomes more and moreas. Hence, a more flexibled for operators to improvea ubiquitous and cost effectiveevolved to the point where ane base station) achieves nearmined by information theoreticss networks will be obtainedork topology. Heterogeneousset of base stations, can betral efficiency per unit area. Ais depicted inFigure 1. Thisgular (planned) placement of lly transmit at high power levelseveral picocells, femto cellsit at substantially lower power
rk utilizing a mixof macro, pico,relay cells
eployed to eliminate coveragem and improve capacity in hotof low power nodes arear base stations with the onlylower transmit power thans. They are, typically, equippedl antennas and are deployedin a planned manner.typically consumer deployednodes for indoor applicationitated by the consumers homene (DSL) or cable modem.
2011 8th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, Aachen
978-1-61284-402-2/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE171
Typically, omni-directional antenDepending on whether the femtoaccessto all terminals or to aterminals only, femtos are classiclosed (CSG femto cells).
Relay nodes are network nodesbackhaul. The backhaul, whicconnection of the relay to the neand uses the air interface resourcsystem.Relays are typicallydirectional antennas in the bacdirectional antennas in the access liDue to their lower transmit power and smapico/femto/relay base stations can of acquisitions. Relay nodesoffer additiobackhaul where a wireline backhaul is ueconomical.Deployment options for heterogeneous netwin detail in [1]and the references thereiinclude multicarrier deployment, carrier agchannel deployments. In the following dison co-channel deployments. In such a scenarnodes are deployed in the same frequencydeployments of heterogeneous networks issolution since it is applicable for any systnecessarily relying on the availability of a lit does not rely on the support of carrierterminal.On the other side, severe interf arise in case of co-channel deployments asthe next sections. To overcome these harseveralkey design features of heterogenediscussed in the next sections.II.
Cell Range Expansion
A pico base station is characterized by a stransmit power as compared to a macro basof the large disparity between the transmimacro and pico base stations, the downlink base station is much smaller than that of aThis is not the case for uplink, where the strreceived from a user terminal depends on thpower, which is the same for all uplinks frdifferent base stations. Hence, the uplink cbase stations is similar.If serving cell selection is predominantly bsignal strength, as it is the case in LTE Rel-8pico base stations will be greatly diminscenario, the larger coverage of high polimits the benefits of cell splitting by attterminals towards macro base stations basedwithout having enough base station resouserve these user terminals. Resources of stations may remain underutilized.nas are applied.ase station allowrestricted set of ified as open orwithout a wiredh provides thework, is wirelesss of the wirelessequipped withhaul and omni-k.ller physical size,er flexible siteal flexibility innavailable or notorks are discussedn. These optionsgregation and co-ussions we focusio, all the network layer. Co-channela very attractivem bandwidth notrge spectrum andggregation at theerence challengesit will be seen insh RF conditionsous networks are
ubstantially lowere station. Becauset power levels of overage of a picoacro base station.ngth of the signalterminal transmitm the terminal tooverage of all theased on downlink , the usefulness of ished. In such aer base stations
racting most useron signal strengthces to efficientlylow power baseThe difference between the lbase stations can result in anand uneven user experiencesnetwork. Therefore, from thcapacity, it is desirable to balapico base stations by expandstations and subsequently increconcept is referred to as cillustrated in Figure 2(a) and (of the pico cell is expandeassociate with the pico cell.macro cell and a more balanvarious nodes are achieved.(a)(b)
Figure 2:
Limited footprintsignal, (b) Increased footprint o
A simple example of two catstations can be used to demonrange expansion. Figure 3 association with and withoutmixed macro and pico ddistribution (configuration 1an
Figure 3:
Pico cell user associatiexp
adings of high and low powerunfair distribution of data ratesmong the user terminals in thee point of view of network ce the load between macro anding the coverage of pico basease the cell splitting gains. Thisll range expansion, which isb). In Figure 2 (b) the cell rangeto allow more terminals toTraffic is offloaded from theed load distribution across the
of picocells due to strong macrof pico cells with range expansion
gories of macro and pico basestrate potential gains from cellshows the statistics of usercell range expansion for theployment for uniform userd 4bin [2]).
n statistics with and without rangension
The range expansion here is achieved bassociation based on minimum path losmaximum downlink signal strength. As itfigure, cell range expansion allows manassociate with the pico cells and enabledistribution of air interface resources to eacis even more pronounced in hotspots layconfiguration 4b in [2], where users are clpico cells. Capacity gains can be achieved tthe resources allocated for low power basufficient coverage is provided by high powthe resources that are allocated to them.illustrated in more detail in one of the follow
 Interference Management 
In a co-channel deployment of a hetersevere interference situations may arise. Typ
Macro-Pico deployments with termcell range expansion. In this case,not necessarily the strongest anbecome much less than zero dB.macro cell is a strong interferer, tvictim. This situation is illustrated i
Terminals in close proximity to abut barred from accessing them.femto cell is a strong interferer, tvictim. This situation is illustrated i 
Figure 4:
terminal in proximity to a femmacro base station
In order to overcome such harsh interferennecessary to consider interference coordinatican solve these problems. To enable efficichannel deployments of heterogeneouinterference management scheme should bdifferent traffic loads and different numbersstations at various geographical areas.As opposed to homogeneous network networks necessitate more coordinatiopartitioning across base stations to minterference. Principally, theresource paperformed in time domain, frequency ddomain. A spatial domain solution basescheduling is investigated for CSG femto cgeneral, time domain partitioning has the adbetter adapt to user distribution and traffic la very attractive method for spectrum consttime domain solution that enables resperforming cells rather than onis seen from they more users tos more equitableh user.The effectouts as given bystered around thehrough sharing of se stations, whiler vase stations onThese gains areing sections.geneous network ical scenarios areinals operating inthe serving cell isthe SINR mayIn this case thee pico cell is then Figure 2 (b).emto base stationIn this case thee macro cell is an Figure 4.
tocell served by a
ce situations it ison techniques thatnt support of co-networks, anable to adapt toof low power bases, heterogeneousn via resourceanage inter cellrtitioning can bemain, or spatialon coordinatedells e.g. in [3]. Invantage that it canad changes and israined markets. Aurce partitioningthrough X2 backhaul coordinRel-10 (enhanced Inter Cell In[4]. Performance analysispartitioning can be found e.g.CSG femto cells. In eICIC 3negotiated time domain resourIn order to enable time domaicalled almost blank subframesLTE Rel-10. In such a subreference signals (RS), synchrmessages are transmittedcompatibility to legacy terminof a ABS subframe,whereantenna ports are transmitted.elements are left idle that arcontrol channels PDCCH, PHchannel PDSCH.
Figure 5: 
Almost Blank 
Interference coordination betand the victim cell is performeach bit in the bitmap is maindicates an ABS subframe. Tinferring that the interferenceBased on the data traffic demoften as every 40ms. The compeer to peer, i.e. there isHowever, the cell creatingcontrols which resources canserve terminals in harsh interfeFigure 6 shows an examplinterference management sce(strong interfering cell) and a p
Figure 6:
backhaul based interfor macro/pi
tion is included in 3GPP LTEerference Coordination, eICIC)for time domain resourcein [5] for pico cells and [6] forPP LTE the granularity of thees isone subframe, i.e. 1 ms.in interference coordination, so(ABS) have been introduced inrame only Rel-8 cell specificonization signals and broadcastto enable full backward
als. Figure 5 shows an exampleonly reference signalsof twoIt is seen that many resourceusually used to transmit theICH and PCFICH and the data
Subframe (Non-MBSFN)
een thestrong interfering celld by means of a bitmap, whereped to a single subframe andhe size of the bitmap is 40 bits,attern repeats itself after 40ms.and, the pattern can change asmunication between the cells isno master slave relationship.strong interference effectivelybe used by the victim cell torence conditions.of an X2 backhaul basedario in case of a macro cellico cell (victim cell). 
ference management, illustrated ono cells (FDD)

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