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Pojava grada i mogućnosti njegovog sprečavanja

Pojava grada i mogućnosti njegovog sprečavanja

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Published by Tihomir Dejanović

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Published by: Tihomir Dejanović on Jun 29, 2012
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05/30/2014

 
\CGMECY LFB@OMXC
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tcgmecrlfbJke`cd.ame 
0
ZMB@X@ KY@L@ C EMKVĈOMQ\C OBFKMXMK QZYFć@X@OB@
 0.
 
VXML
Xrcbfef c ndce` su n`m usdmv mpst`on` dbulsncg icċ` icd` mluvcbfn prfleft mimš`v`ob`
,
vbfrmv`ob` c prmuă`v`ob`.
 
Zrmuă`v`ob` l`tcr`bu bmŠ cz `otcănf Krănf n`l` bf @rcstmtfd u CX vcbfnu
prcbf omvf frf o`pcs
`m svmbu ‟Eftfmrmdmkcbu—.
 Zrv` pmzo`t` mse`tr`ob` dmn`domk vrfefo`
l`tcr`bu cz WCX vcbfn` n`l` bf fokdfsnc šupocn Xcdb`e Efrd u Lr`bicbu vrŠcm lofvo` mse`tr`ob` u
tmnu sfl`e kmlco`.
Kmlcof 0861. Hfrlco`ol ml \msn`of bf msomv`m prvu erfšu st`o
ca` z`
mse`tr`obf.Mtnrcċ`
 omvcg costruefo`t` uo`pr 
 bfĂubu mv` mse`tr`ob`.\fremeft`r bf nmostrucs`o
08::. kml.,
ncŠmebfr 0831.kml. ` i`rmeft`r 08<<.kmlcof.\m bf memkuċcdm l` eomkc o`uăocac pmst`vf msomvof hczcănf z`nmof u czuă`v`obu eftfmrmdmŠncg hfomefo`.
 V WCW vcbfnu hmrecr`o`  bf eftfmrmdmkcb` n`m o`un` `
ml t`l` sf mo` uirz`om r`zvcb` c pmnuŠ`v` l` se`obc dbulsnf p`tobf c ofsrfċf nmbf su pmvfz`of s` ċulce` vrfefo`.Lm t`l` su
vrfefosnf ofpmkmlf
pmnuŠ`v`of sprcbfăctc
 
r`zoce i`b`obce`,vr`ă`obce`,prcomŠfobfe šrt`v`,zvmobfobfe arnvfocg zvmo`,pua`obfe cz puŠ`n
` c sd.Ml l`voco` sf se`tr`dm l` sf zro` kr`l` emku r`zictc zvunme p` sf arnvfo` zvmo` emku se`tr`tc n`m prv` srflstv` mlir`of prmtcv kr`l`.Z`p` Vri`o XCCC 06
;6.kmlcof czl`m bf mvd`Šċfobf l` sf pmsvfċfo` arnvfo` zvmo` nmrcstf z` ‟emdctvf— l` cg z`micĂ
u mdub`,vbft`r c kr`l.Zua`obf sf prcebfobubf u mlir`oc ml kr`l` ml WCX vcbfn`.V Ct`dcbc
073:.kmlcof lmd`zf lm s`zo`ob` l` stv`r`obf kr`l` emšf ictc sprbfăfom ui`acv`obfe ăfstca` lce` pmemċu tmpmvsnf p`dbif u kredb`v
cou. V @ustrcbc 0739.kmlcof E.Qtcokfr nmostruc
Šf
spfacb`doc
tmp z` mlir`ou ml kr`l`.R`gv`dbubuċc obcgmvme uspbfgu mv` tfgocn` sf Šcrc p` bf prmŠcrfo` c o` Hr`oausnu c Ct`dcbu.V Ct`dcbc bf 03::.kmlcof icdm r`spmrfĂfom 0: ::: tmpmv` c tf kmlcof bf czvrŠfom 3,6 ecd. csp`dbfob`.
 Hr`oausnc kfofr`d Yuico bf 03<7.kmlcof nmostrucs`m prvu prmtcvkr`lou r`nftu,nmb` bf omscd` rf`kfos o` i`zc srfirm-bmlcl` lm vcscof ml 0 :::e.Lvcbf kmlcof n`socbf Ct`dcb`oc prmczvmlf prmtcvkr`lof r`nftf nmbf r`zicb`bu kr`l ul`roce t`d`sce`.Lm 03;:. kmlcof moc svmbce sfdb`ace` cspmru
ăubu mvf r`nftf u vrcbflomstc lm ecdcmo lmd`r`.V
Qmvbftsnme Q`vfzu ml 6:-cg c 8:-cg kmlco` lv`lfsftmk vcbfn` mlir`ou ml kr`l` sprmvmlf z`scb`vobfe mid`n` rf`kfosme prfnm tmpmv` c prmtcvkr`locg r`nft`.Cstmvrfefom u Qbflcobfoce
Lrš`v`e` vrŠf fnspfrcefotf s`
z`scb`v`obfe cz `vcmo` c kfofr`tmr` s` Rfedbf.Zrfe` pml`ace` Qvbftsnf eftfmrm
dmŠnf mrk`ocz`acbf,l`o`s mnm 1: zfe`db` sprmvmlc mlir`ou ml kr`l`,lmn cstm tmdcnc irmb r`lc o` o`uăom
-
cstr`šcv`ănce prmbfntce` cz mid`stc mlir`of ml kr`l`.
Kredb`vcosnf ofpmkmlf, iurom pr`
ċ
fof b`nce mduboce vbftrme, mlomsom b`nce p`l`vco`e`, s kr`lme c ifz obfk`, prmuzrmnubu prmidfef u prmeftu
, Š
tftf o` zkr`l`e` c u zfedbmr`lobc. V pd`ocosnce pmlru
ă
 bce` cz`zcv`bu b`nf iubcaf, pmpd`vf o` e`obce rcbfn`e` c ndczc
Š
t` o` efn`ome tdu.Mv`nvf ofpmkmlf o`b
ă
f
Šċ
f sf b`vdb`bu u r`zlmidbu ml `prcd` lm mntmir` ` rbf
Ă
f u zcesnme lcbfdu kmlcof.
O` prmstmru Imsof c Gfrafkmvcof kmlcŠobf sf b`vdb` 1: lm <: l`o` s` kredb`vcosnce mdub`e`, ` kr`l n`m Štfto` pmb`v` b`vdb` sf 0 lm 9 l`o` kmlcŠobf. Zrmsbfăof kmlcŠobf Štftf ml kr`l` czomsf 1: ecdcmo` NE c o`rmăctm sf mlomsf o` prce`rou pmdbmprcvrflou prmczvmlobu. Kr`l
ukr 
mš`v` c mst`d` e`tfrcb`do` lmir` ` Štftf lfsftmstrunm o`le`Šubu ud`k`ob` u prmtcvkr`lou z`Štctu. Zrmtcvkr`lo` z`Štct` colcrfntom se`obubf r`zmrof mdubof vftrmvf ` ofŠtm e`dm pmvfċ`v` nmdcăcou p`l`vco`. V pmsdflobce kmlco`e` prcsut`o bf pmr`st mp`somstc ml kr`l` zimk pmvfċ`obf srflobf kmlcŠobf tfefpr`turf c o`kdcg tfepfr`turocg `epdctul`.O`bvfċc irmb l`o` s kr`lme ce`
rfkcb` ml Q`r`bfv`, lmdcome Ofrftvf lm
obfomk uŠċ` c mnmdco` \rficob` ,
 ` mst`t`n afotr`dof
Imsof ce` 0 l`o kmlcŠobf, lmn usnm r`vocă`rsnm pmlruăbf uz Q`vu, svf lm Lmimb` c \uzdf ce` 9 l`o` kmlcŠobf.Vo`z`l 1: kmlco` o` mvce prmstmrce` pmstmbc mrk`oczmv`o` sduši` z` prmtcv
- kr`lo
u z`Štctu, ăcbc r`l ocbf prfncl
`o oc u pfrcmlu ml 0330. -
9:::. kmlcof. Qcstfe z`Štctf ml kr`l` of mtnd`ob` kr`l n`m pmb`vu, vfċ se`obubf Štftf. \m zo`ăc l` u czuzftoce c sdmšfoce vrfefosnce sctu`acb`e`, n`l` su kr`lmomsoc prmafsc b`nmk cotfozctft`, emš
f c pmrfl lfbstv`
z`Štctf ml kr`l` l` lmĂf lm p`l`ob` kr`l` c Štft`. EfĂutce c t`l` sf Štftf msbftom se`obubu bfr sf prcrmloc prmafs mir`zmv`ob` kr`l` u zo`tomb ebfrc se`obubf. Mabfo` fhcn`somstc bf tfŠn` c nmepdcnmv`o` zimk sdmšfomstc prmafs` mir`zmv`ob`
kr`l` u `temshfrc c obfkmvf vfdcnf prmstmrof c vrfefosnf prmebfod
 bcvmstc, ` z`socv` sf o` pml`ace` nmbc sf mir`lbubu mlkmv`r`buċce st`tctcănce eftml`e`.
 
 
\CGMECY LFB@OMXC
Ĉ,
tcgmecrlfbJke`cd.ame 
9
9.VQDMXC R@ O@Q\@B@OBF KY@L@
9.0.XYCBFEF C NDCE@
Zmb`e ‟vrfefo`—
 pmzo`t bf cz sv`nmlofvomk
šcvmt` .M obfeu sf l`bu prmkomzf c czvbfŠt`bc.Xrcbfef sf lfhcocŠf n`m st`obf trmpmshfrf u trfoutnu ebfrfob` c mse`tr`ob` eftfmrmdmŠncg fdfefo`t` c pmb`v`
(
1,08;
).
V s`vrfefomb ndce`tmdmkcbc pmb`e ndcef sf svf vcŠf vfzubf,z` vcŠfkmlcŠobc rfšce vrfefo`.O`bvcŠf
 bmb mlkmv`r` lfhcocacb` Qmvbftsnmk ndce`tmdmk` I.Z.@dcsmv`2
‟Ndce` bf z`nmoct` o`czebfocăomst eftfmr 
m
dmŠncg prmafs`,mlrfĂfo` nmepdfnsme hczcănm
-
kfmkr`hsncg usdmv`,nmb` sf cspmdb`v` u eomkmkmlcŠobfe rfšceu vrfefo`,mse`tr`ocg u mlrfĂfome vrfefou—.R`nmof pm
nmbce` sf b`vdb`bu `temshfrsnf pmb`vf c prmafsc, tf obcgmvf
uz`b`eof vfzf prmuă`v` eftfmrmdmkcb`.Eftfmrmdmkcb` bf o`un` m `temshfrc. Mo` bf hczcn` `temshfrf.XcŠfkmlcŠobf rfšcef tcpmv` vrfefo` tb. ndceu prmuă`v` ndce`tmdmkcb`.Mo` bf kfmkr`hcb`
trmpmshfrf(
1,91
).
 9.9.@\EMQHFYQNC ZMYFEF
Ĉ
@BC 9.9.0.Y@XOM\F
ũ
OM Q\@OBF @\EMQHFYF
 @temshfr` sf em
š
f o`d`zctc u trc r`zdc
ă
ct` r`vomtf
š
o` st`ob`2 st`icdome, d`icdome c colchfrfotome
tm z`vcsc ml vfdc
ă
cof tfrec
ă
nmk kr`lcbfot`. V st`icdome r`vomtf
š
ome st`obu `temshfr` sf o`d`zc mol` n`l` bf tfrec
ă
nc kr`lcbfot e`obc ml `lcb`i`tsnmk kr`lcbfot` tfepfr`turf, tb. e`obc ml
A o` 0:: e vcscosnf r`zdcnf. V st`icdomb
`temshfrc ofe` vfrtcn`docg strub`ob` v`zlug` ml zfedbcof pmvrŠcof prfe` vcscoc. Emku pmstmb`tc
gmrczmo
t`do` sd`i` strub`ob`, ` cstm t`nm c scd`zo` strub`ob`. \`nvc sduă`bfv
c su u tzv. `otcacndmoce`.
O`rmă
ctm bf vfdcn` st`icdomst v`zlug` n`l` u `temshfrc pmstmbf covfrzcbsnc sdmbfvc tfepfr`turf. \`l` sf tmp`m v`zlug o`d`zc czo`l gd`locbfk v`zlug`, ` n`nm bf tmpdcbc v`zlug spf
achcăom d`nŠc ml gd`locbfk, tm ċf mo pdcv`tc czo`l gd`locbfk v`zlug`. V t`nvmb `tem
shfrc of emku sf mir`zmv`tc
uzd`zof v`zluŠof strubf.
 
V d`icdome r`vomtfšome st`obu `temshfr` sf o`d`zc n`l` bf tfrecănc kr`lcbfot vfċc ml
`lcb`i`tsn
mk kr`lcbfot`, tb. vfċc ml 0˒
A o` 0:: e vcscosnf r`zdcnf. V d`icdomb `temshfrc pmstmbf
vfrtcn`do` uzd`zo` v`zluŠo` strub`ob`. \m bf sduă`b u v`zluŠoce lfprfscb`e`, mlomsom u
acndmoce`.
V colchfrfotome r`vomtfšome st`obu `temshfr` sf o`d`zc n`l` bf tfrecănc kr`lcbfot r`v`o
`lcb`i`tsnme kr`lcbfotu, tb. r`v`o
A o` 0:: eft`r` vcscosnf r`zdcnf. V colchfrfotomb `temshfrc ofe` ocn`nvcg v`z
luŠocg strub`ob`
(
9,;8
).
9.9.9.X@RLVŪOF E@QF C OBCGMXF MQMICOF
 
V acdbu pmtpuocbfk prmuă`v`ob` vrfefosnmk st`ob`,
 
` o`rmăctm r`lc mlrfĂc
v`ob` prmkomzf
o`stup`buċfk vrfefo`, pmtrfiom bf prmuă`v`obf Šcrmncg v`zluŠocg e`s`,
cdc t`d`s`, o` acbfdme
obcgmvme prmstr`ostvu, n`nm u gmrczmot`dome t`nm c u vfrtcn`dome pr`vau. Zrc prmuă`v`obu v`zluŠocg e`s` pmtrfiom bf l` sf utv
rlc kfmkr`hsnm pmrcb
fndm czvbfsof v`zluŠof e`sf, obfo lmt`l`Šobc tmn, hczcăn` c lco`ecăn` svmbstv` c efĂusmioc mlomsc s` lrukce susbfloce e`s`e`.@nm v`zlug lušf vrfefo` ecrubf cdc sf spmrm nrfċf czo`l ofnf mid`stc, mo lmicb` czvbfsof hczcănf msmicof tf mid
`stc (u pmkdflu tfepfr`turf, vd`kf, ctl.). Qt`acmocr`obf v`zlug` m nmef bf mvlbf
rcbfă
,
prfe` ofnce `utmrce` czomsc 7-
0< l`o`. Mvm sf lmk`Ă` n`l` czo`l ofnf
mid`stc st`acmocr` st`icd`o `otcacndmo u nmef su sd`ic vbftrmvc c vflrm vrcbfef. Zrfe` tmef, prmstmroc c st`icdoc `otcacndmoc su mi
d`stc klbf sf hmrecr`bu v`zluŠof e`sf. \`nvc sf `otcacndmoc
 
\CGMECY LFB@OMXC
Ĉ,
tcgmecrlfbJke`cd.ame 
1
o`băfŠċf mir`zubu o` suptrmpsnce
kfmkr`hsnce
Šcrco`e` (96
-
<:º k.Š.) czo`l mnf`o`. Qt`icdoc `otcacndmoc mir`zubu sf t`nmĂf c o` uebfroce c vcŠce k.Š
. c tm zcec czo`l vfme` r`sgd`
Ăfocg lbfdmv` zfedbcof pmvrŠcof .X`zluŠof e`sf lmicb`bu r`zdcăctf hczcănf msmicof, zimk ofbflo`nmk prcdcv` suoăfvf zr`ăof fofrkcbf o` r`zoce k.Š.
, c z
imk r`zdcăctmk z`krcbfv`ob` c gd`Ăfob` mnf`o` c nmotcofo`t`. O` t`b o`ăco sf hmrecr`bu v`zluŠof e`sf cstcg hczcăncg msmico` czo`l vfdcncg prmstr`ost`v` u trmpmshfrc. Mv`nm hmrecr`of v`zluŠof e`sf prfebfŠt`bu sf cz bflomk prflbfd` u lrukc, n`m lbfdmvc mpŠtf `temshfrsnf acrnu
d`acbf. Zrfe` tmef, sv`n` msomvo` strub` prfomsc
v`zluŠof e`sf mlrfĂfo
mk pmrcbfnd` c msmico`. Zrflc
m czo`l nmk` sf ofn` v`zluŠo`
e`s`
hmrecr`d`, mlomsom czo`l nmk` bf lmicd` czvbfsof hczcănf msmicof, o`zcv` sf czvmrcŠo` mid`st z` tu lmtcăou v`zluŠou e`su. CzvmrcŠo` mid`st emr` ictc prmstr`o`, ` obfo` hczcăn` prcrml` c tfep
f-
r`tur` czo`l zfedbcof pmvrŠcof
 
emr`bu ictc prcidcšom cstf u acbf
dmb mid`stc. \`nvc su usdmvc cspuobfoc o` trmpsnce emrce`, cdc u pustcobsnce nr`bfvce`, cdc u prflbfdce` nmbc su st`dom pml socbfkme c
dflme, n`m Štm su pmd`rof mid`stc. Vebfrfof k.Š.
, zimk svmbf r`zomdcnmstc tfrfo` c o`kdcg tfepfr`turocg prmeb
fo`, s` prmefome k.Š., of emku sf se`tr`tc n`m stv`rof czvmrcŠof mid`stc,
klbf sf emku hmrecr 
`tc bflomdcnf v`zluŠof e`sf.\rc msomvo` tcp` czvmrcŠocg mid`stc su2 vml`,
nmpom, dfl cdc socbfk. Qv`n` ml mvcg pmldmk` ce` msmifo` lfbstv` o` v`zlug czo`l obcg (
9,086
).\`nm, opr., `nm sf bfl`o `o
tcacndmo u tmnu zcef lušf vrfefo` o`d`zc czo`l @td`otsnmk
mnf`o` u prflbfdu @zmrsncg mstrv` ` lrukc czo`l nmotcofto` Fvrm
`zcbf, tm ċf v`zlug u prvme `otcacndmou lmictc ml pmldmkf s`svce lruk`ăcbf msmicof ofkm u lrukme `otcacndmou.
V
 
prvme
`otcacndmou ċf sf
 hmrecr`tc e`s` emrsnmk trmpsnmk v`zlug` s` vcsmnme tfepfr`turme (n`r`ntfrcs
tcăome z` l`tu k.Š.
 
u tm lmi` kmlcof), s` vfċme s`lršcome vmlfof p`rf c vfċme nmdcăcome pr`Šcof usdbfl idczcof Q`g`rf. V lrukme `otcacndmou hmrecr`ċf sf e`s` nmotcofot`domk
pmd`romk v`zlug`, mlomsom v`zlug` uebfrfocg k
.Š.
, nmbc bf gd`l`o c prmzcr`o.
Gmrczmot`do` r`sprmstr`obfomst bflomdcnf v`zluŠof e`sf emšf czomsctc ml 9 lm 0: ecdcmo`
ne¹, lmn obfo` vfrtcn`do` r`sprmstr`obfomst czomsc s`em lfsftcou ncdmeft`r`, tb. u o`bvc
Šf sduă`bfv`, lm trmpmp`uzf.V mid`stc bflof cstf v`zluŠof e`sf eftfmrmdmŠnc fdfefotc sf e
 bfob`bu spmrm c obcgmvc gmrczmot`doc kr`lcbfotc su e`dc.
\c kr`lcbfotc sf irzm pmvfċ`v`bu o` kr`oca`e` klbf sf lmlcrubu lvcbf v`zluŠof e`sf s` r`zdcăctce hczcănce msmico`e`. @nm bf ofn` v`zluŠo` e`s` prcemr`o` l` o`pustc svmbu czvmrcŠou mid`st c nrfof u ofnme pr`vau, svc obfoc lbfdmvc czd`šu sf
t`
l` lmst` sdcăoce spmdboce utc
a`
 bce`, nmbc ebfob`bu obfof msmicof. Zrfe` tmef, hczcănf
msmicof
ofnf v`zluŠof e`sf mlrfĂ
ubu sf, prvm obfoce pmrcbfndme, tb. kfmkr`
hsnce pmdmš`bfe czvmrcŠof
mid`stc, c lrukm, obfome icmkr`hc
 bme, tb. putfe nmbce bf mo` prfŠd` cz ebfst` svmk` pmst`on` lm ebfst` klbf sf lmtcăo` v`zluŠo` e`s` pmse
`tr`.Q`
mizcrme o` vfdcnf lcefozcbf v`zluŠocg e`s`, of emšf sf măfncv`tc l` ċf o` a
cbfdme putu lbfdmv`tc cstc utca
`bc o` abfdmnupou v`zluŠou
e`su.
Cp`n msmicof bflof cstf v`zluŠof e`sf, tb. vfdcăcof obfocg eftfmrmdmŠncg fdfefo`t`, ebfob`ċf sf prc nrft`obu cstf pmd`nm c ofprfnclom, `dc o` r`zdcăctf o`ăcof u r`zoce sduă`bfvce`.
 
9.9.1. ND@QCHCN@ACB@ X@RLVŪOCG E@Q@
 
X`zluŠof e`sf emku sf pml
c
 bfdctc o` lv` o`ăco`2 c tm prfe` obcgmvme tmpdmt
ome st`obu c
prfe` kfmkr`hsnme pmdmš`bu czvmrcŠof mid`stc. Zrfe` tmef, emšf sf rfċc l` pmstmbf lvcbf nd`schcn`acbf2 tfrecăn` c
kfmkr`hsn` .
\frecăn` nd`schcn`acb`.
-
Zrfe` tfrecănmb nd`schcn`acbc v`zluŠof e`sf sf lbfd
f o` tmpdf c
gd`lof v`zluŠof e`sf.
 
\mpd` v`zluŠo` e`s` bf mo` nmb` sf nrfċf czo`l gd`locbf pmldmkf, tb. ăcb` bf tfepfr`tur` vcŠ`
ml tfepfr`turf pmldmkf czo`
l nmbf sf lmtcăo` v`zluŠo` e`s` nrfċf. Lmd`z`n tmpdf v`zluŠof e`sf u ofnc prflcm micăom cz`zcv` mtmpCb`v`obf, `dc sf s`e` v`zluŠo` e`s` prc tmef r`sgd`lc. Y`sgd`Ăfobf miugv`tc s`em ocšc sdmb v`zlug`, usdfl ăfk` sf mir`zubu covfrzcbf tfepfr`turf,
nmbf su u ofnce sdu
ă`bfvce` ofpmsrflom czo`l zfedbcof pmvrŠcof, om ăfŠċf o` vcscoc mnm <:: lm 8:: eft`r`. Vsdbfl tmk` u tmpdme v`zlugu sf uspmst`vc st`icdom r`vomtfšom st`obf. @nm bf tmpdc v`zlug lmvmdbom vd`š`o, mol`
 
sf prc obfkmvme gd`Ăfobu prc zfedbcomb pmvrŠco
c stv`r`bu `lvfntcvof e`kdf (`nm bf covfrzcb` prc zfedbc) cdc ocsnc sdmbfvctc mid`ac (`nm bf covfrzcb` o` ofnmb vcscoc). Ofn`l` s
f cz mvcg mid`n`, ` t`nmĂf c cz
 
e`kdf czduăubu scpfċf p`l`vcof
mlomsom cze`kdca`. V tmnu dbft`,

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/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->