“The sex of turtle hatchlings is determined by the temperature of eggs during incubation. Warmer
nest temperatures produce females, and cooler nests result in males. According to Lucy Hawkes of
the Marine Turtle Research Group at the University of Exeter (UK), these ratios could soon change. “With just two degrees Celsius of warming, there would be no more males produced at Cape Ca-
naveral, Florida,” states Hawkes. It’s widely accepted that three degrees Celsius will occur in
the next 100 years, which could be disastrous for Florida loggerheads”
International Sea Turtle Society
deprivation o basic human needs caused by corrupt socialstructures or institutions. Considering the huge waste o watercaused by raising cattle and other animals, actory arming isclearly a source o structural violence. This injustice, however,can be ought individually on a day-to-day basis. A meat dietrequires ,000 gallons o water a day, while a vegetarian diet,on the other hand, requires only about 300 gallons o water aday.⁵ This is a dierence o about 3,700 gallons — roughly theamount o water needed to keep 6,000 people healthy eachday.⁶ Our ood choices are clearly critical, as conversion to amore eicient diet helps to ensure that all humans have theiressential needs met.Factory arming also wastes ood. It takes about 6 poundso grain to produce one pound o bee, meaning that theamount o ood that could eed 6 people instead goes to asole individual.⁷ Surveys show that close to 70 percent (700million acres) o all crops grown in the United States go toeeding animals that are raised or slaughter.⁸ Only about 6percent o the land used to produce bee — 500 million acres(53 percent o U.S. armland) — would be needed to eed thesame number o vegetarians.⁹ Taking into account the ine-iciency o all types o meat production, to eed all Americans
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vegetables instead o meat would require at the most 2 per-cent o the 70 percent o land used to eed livestock.¹⁰ Fromthis perspective, one could argue that more than hal o allU.S. ood crops are essentially wasted.The misused resources do not stop here, as the process o growing all o these crops leads to the use o another dwin-dling commodity, oil. Growing crops, cultivating crops, trans-porting crops to be processed, processing, transportation toarms, transporting animals to slaughter houses, transportingmeat, rerigeration, and distribution o meat all depend onpetroleum. Cornell ecologist Dave Pimentel calculated that28 gallons o oil are needed to raise a ,250-pound cow orslaughter. The United States alone raises and slaughters over25 million cows a year, meaning the total amount o oil usedper year is more than 355 million barrels or cattle productionand processing alone.¹¹ Considering the ineiciency o meatproduction, we are wasting oil. Fossil uels are a source o environmental harm, global warming, and armed conlict.Most people don’t eel the air getting hotter with each biteo their Big Mac, but livestock are in act responsible or 8 per-cent o greenhouse gas emissions, which is more than auto-mobiles, according to the Food and Agriculture Organizationo the United Nations. The hundreds o millions o cows raisedworldwide each year produce immense amounts o thegreenhouse gas methane, which warms the planet 20 timesaster than carbon dioxide.¹² Deorestation, also a result o meat production, is responsible or 25 percent o atmosphericcarbon dioxide.¹³ In the Amazon, 60 percent to 70 percent o deorestation is a result o livestock production.14 Conversely,plants, the basis o a vegetarian diet, remove carbon dioxiderom the atmosphere, thus combating global warming. Inaddition to this, livestock are responsible or two thirds o allammonia emissions, which directly contribute to acid rain— which pollutes water and harms aquatic animals, orests,and human health.¹⁵Any o us who have ever walked out in a pasture knows thatarm animals produce astonishing amounts o excrement. Attimes, we must wonder, what happens to all o this waste?
Forests are often burned to make grazing land for cattle.