Cellulose Ethanol Aff And the white! - [ 3 / 84 ]
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Observation One is Inherency:
President Bush’s call to increase ethanol production by 2012 has been met with dueskepticism because grain-based ethanol is simply not sustainable – however, cellulosicsources are – the only barrier is that the production costs are too high to beindependently competitive.Toronto Star 7
(“Ethanol’s Future Not Dependent on Corn”, February 19, accessed online June 30, 2008, p. L/N) DMZAn aggressive push into ethanol production is a horrible idea, particularly when it's supported by hard-earnedtaxpayer dollars. So say the politicians, journalists and energy executives who attack ambitious policiesaimed at making the renewable fuel more plentiful. It would make food and cattle feedstock prices rise, theylament. The energy return on ethanol is too small to be worthwhile, they point out. It's a farmer's subsidy indisguise, they argue, neglecting to mention the massive subsidies that go to the oil industry and other hiddenoil-industry costs that our governments take on. So when the U.S. president announced in his recent State of the Union address that he wanted his country to produce 132 billion litres of biofuels a year by 2017, and as aresult reduce U.S. gas consumption by 20 per cent, there was no shortage of skeptics in the crowd. Thecontroversy is partly deserved, if we assume that well into the future we'll be making ethanolmostly fromfood crops such as corn.Even if corn was the ideal ingredient, there's simply not enough of it to reach Bush'sgoal of a five-fold increase in ethanolproduction. At best, corn could satisfy about half of demand - and thatignores the general impact on food and feedstock prices. The situation in Canada is different, but heading inthe same direction. Dave O'Reilly, chief executive of U.S. oil giant Chevron, said in a recent Reuters reportthat achieving Bush's target "requires technology that has not yet been invented." Exxon Mobil CEO Rex Tillerson made a similar comment, insisting that "some significant technological breakthroughs" are neededto get the necessary scale of ethanol production. Clearly, ethanolisn't the problem. It's the way we currentlymake it that's the problem. And with due respect to comments from these well-paid CEOs who have their owncorporate interests to protect, the "technological breakthroughs" and inventions are already here. It allcentres on a technique for making ethanolout of agricultural residues, wood waste and non-food corps suchas switch grass, instead of from the starches of corn,wheat and similar grains. This type of biofuel, calledcellulosic ethanol,doesn't impact food supply or prices, requires less energy to produce and isn't a front forfarmer subsidies. Technologies used to produce cellulosic ethanolwork. The challenge is to lower the cost of production so it becomes economically competitive without, over the long term, the need for governmentsubsidies. Demonstration production plants have already been built, and a number of commercial plants arecurrently in development around the world.
despite a governmental mandate for making cellulosic ethanolconversation more efficient, companies are unlikely to jump on board due to themonetary costs of production.Selig 8
(Marcus F., Virginia Poliytechnic Institute and State University; J.D. Candidate 2008 Indiani U. School of Law,“Getting more from the giving tree: regulating the use of biotechnology in forest management”, 26 Va. Envtl.L.J. 577, accessed online 25 June 2008, p. L/N) DMZAdditionally, trees may be engineered to serve as an efficient cellulosic feedstock for the production of ethanol.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) "has established an objective to achieve cost-competitiveproduction of cellulosic ethanolby 2012 per the President's Advanced Energy Initiative and to displace 30percent of 2004 levels of gasoline consumption with biofuels by 2030."
Trees may prove the most valuableresource for accomplishing this goal. Wood is composed of a combination of three organic polymers:cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
Cellulose,an efficient source of glucose,which can be fermented by