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MB0044 SET-1

MB0044 SET-1

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Published by garima bhatngar

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Published by: garima bhatngar on Jun 30, 2012
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MBA - R. No. 511222964
Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 2MB0044 – Production and Operations Management(B 1133) Assignment Set – 1Q1. Explain briefly the Computer Integrated Manufacturing.Ans: Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Computer Integrated Manufacturing, known as CIM, is the phrase usedto describe t
he complete
automation of a manufacturing plant, with allprocesses functioning under computer control and digital informationtying them together. It was promoted by machine tool manufacturersin the 1980's and the Society for Manufacturing Engineers (CASA/SME).Quite often it was mistaken for the concept of a "lights out" factory. Itincludes CAD/CAM, computer- aided design/computer-aided manufacturing,CAPP, computer-aided process planning, CNC, computer numerical controlmachine tools, DNC, direct numerical control machine tools, FMS, flexiblemachining systems, ASRS, automated storage and retrieval systems, AGV,automated guided vehicles, use of robotics and automated conveyance,computerized scheduling and production control, and a business systemintegrated by a common data base.Integration occurs when a broad range of manufacturing and supportingactivities are linked. CIM is the complete automation of a manufacturingplant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digitalinformation tying them together. The three major functions inmanufacturing are production, design, and management function. Productionfunction converts resources into products. The design function transformscustomer specifications into design.Finally the management functions plan and control production activities. The three computer aids in CIM are:
Computer aid to the production function (automated flow of materials)
Computer aid to the design function (automated flow of technologicalinformation)
Computer aid to the management function (automated flow of managerialinformation) When it
to production, CIMs are included in differentareas of production process
as in engineering design, productionplanning, shop control, order processing, material control, distribution and
 T. Antony Joseph Prabakar Page: 1
MBA - R. No. 511222964
many other areas. Information flow across all the functions takes place withthe help of computers. Transmission, processing, distribution, and feedbackhappen almost in real time so that intended activities are conducted rapidly.CIM process helps in rapid production and also reduces indirect costs. CIMuses computers to control the entire production process. This integrationallows the processes to exchange information with each other and thusthey become capable of initiating actions. As responsetimes decrease,customer satisfaction increases resulting in better business. CIM helps inavoiding accumulation of materials resulting in better throughput and betterutilization of space. Bar coded labels that accompany materials containinstructions for processing them which are read by sensing devices anddisplay the status on monitors. This information is available to all concernedpersonnel responsible in planning, marketing and other activities so that theywill be aware of the status of any order. If expediting is needed to meetdeadlines, they will be able to seek intervention. Identifying shortages andensuring faster deliveries become easy with CIM. Thus, CIM is an important
technology in manufacturing. Almost 40 percent of manufacturing companies are now using one or more elements of CIMtechnology The heart of computer integrated manufacturing is CAD/CAM. Computer-aided design(CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing(CAM) systems areessential to reducing cycle times in the organization.CAD/CAM Is ahigh technology integratingtool between design and manufacturing. CAD techniques make use of grouptechnology to create similar geometries for quick retrieval. Electronic filesreplace drawing rooms. CAD/CAM integrated systems providedesign/drafting, planning and scheduling, and fabricationcapabilities. CAD provides the electronic part images, and CAMprovides the facility for tool path cutters to take on the raw piece. The computer graphics that CAD provides allows designers to createelectronic images which can be portrayed in two dimensions, or as a threedimensional solid component or assembly which can be rotated as it isviewed. Advanced software programs can analyze and test designs before a
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MBA - R. No. 511222964
prototype is made. Finite element analysis programs allow engineers topredict stress points on a part, and
of loading.Once a part has been designed, the graphics can be used to program the toolpath to machine the part. When integrated with an NC postprocessor, theNC program that can be used in a CNC machine is produced. The designgraphics can also be used to design tools and fixtures, and for inspections bycoordinate measuring machines. The more downstream use that is made of CAD, the more time that is saved in the overall process.Generative process planning is an advanced generation of CAD/CAM. This uses a more powerful software program to develop a process planbased on the part geometry, the number of parts to be made, andinformation about facilities in the plant. It can select the best tool and fixture,and it can calculate cost and time.Flexible machining systems (FMS) are extensions of grouptechnology and cellular manufacturing concepts. Using integratedCAD/CAM, parts can be designed and programmed in half the time itwould normally take to do the engineering. The part programs can bedownloaded to a CNC machining center under the control of an FMS hostcomputer. The FMS host can schedule the CNC and the parts needed toperform the work. Computer integratedmanufacturing can include differentcombinations of the tools listed above.
Q2. What is automation? What are the kinds automation?
Ans: For services, automation usually means labour saving devices Ineducation, long distance learning technology helps in supplementing classroom instruction. The facilitating goods that are used are web site andvideos. Automation in the banking sector has resulted in ATMs which save thebanks a huge amount of labour and it is found to have given greatercustomer satisfaction. Automation is ideal when the service provided orthe product manufactured is highly standardized. Some extent of automation can be designed even with customization i.e. product or services meant to produce or deliver low volumes specific to a requirement. The
 T. Antony Joseph Prabakar Page: 3

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