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Strength of materials: Simple Stress and Strain

Strength of materials: Simple Stress and Strain

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Published by: aychiluhimhailu on Jun 30, 2012
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11/06/2012

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CHAPTER1
SIMPLESTRESSANDSTRAIN
1.1.Load
Inanyengineeringstructureormechanismtheindividualcomponentswillbesubjectedtoexternalforcesarisingfromtheserviceconditionsorenvironmentinwhichthecomponentworks.Ifthecomponentormemberisinequilibrium,theresultantoftheexternalforceswillbezerobut,nevertheless,theytogetherplacealoadonthememberwhichtendstodeformthatmemberandwhichmustbereactedbyinternalforceswhicharesetupwithinthematerial.Ifacylindricalbarissubjectedtoadirectpullorpushalongitsaxisasshownin
Fig.1.1,
then
it
issaidtobesubjectedto
tension
or
compression.
Typicalexamplesoftensionaretheforcespresentintowingropesorliftinghoists,whilstcompressionoccursinthelegsofyourchairasyousiton
it
orinthesupportpillarsofbuildings.
Stress
a=
PIA
AreaA
p
p
TensionCompression
Fig.
1.1.
Typesofdirectstress.
IntheSIsystemofunitsloadismeasuredin
newtons,
althoughasinglenewton,inengineeringterms,isaverysmallload.Inmostengineeringapplications,therefore,loadsappearinSImultiples,
i.e,
kilonewtons(kN)ormeganewtons(MN).Thereareanumberofdifferentwaysinwhichloadcan
be
appliedtoamember.Typicalloadingtypesare:(a)
Static
or
dead
loads,i.e.non-fluctuatingloads,generallycausedbygravityeffects.(b)
Live
loads,asproducedby,forexample,lorriescrossingabridge.(c)
Impact
or
shock
loadscaused
by
suddenblows.(d)
Fatigue,fluctuating
or
alternating
loads,themagnitudeandsignoftheloadchangingwithtime.
 
2
MechanicsofMaterials
§1.2
1.2.Directornormalstress
(0')
It
hasbeennotedabovethatexternalforceappliedtoabodyinequilibriumisreactedbyinternalforcessetupwithinthematerial.
If,
therefore,abarissubjectedtoauniformtensionorcompression,
i.e,
adirectforce,whichisuniformlyorequallyappliedacrossthecross-section,thentheinternalforcessetup
are
alsodistributeduniformlyandthebarissaidtobesubjectedtoauniform
directornormalstress,
thestressbeingdefinedasload
P
stress
(a):::;;-..-:::;;-
area
A
Stress
a
maythus
be
compressiveortensiledependingonthenatureoftheloadand
will
be
measuredinunitsofnewtonspersquaremetre(N/mI)ormultiplesofthis.
In
somecasestheloadingsituationissuchthatthestresswillvaryacrossanygivensection,andinsuchcasesthestressatanypointisgivenbythelimitingvalueof
fJP/bA
as
{)A
tendstozero.1.3.Directstrain
(8)
If
a
barissubjectedtoadirectload,andhenceastress,thebarwill
change
inlength.If
the
barhasan
original
lengthLand
changesin
lengthbyanamount
oL,
the
strain
producedisdefinedasfollows:strain(e):::;;cba.n~einlength
=
6L
orlgmallength
L
Strainisthusameasureofthedeformationofthematerialandisnon-dimensional,i.e,ithasnounits;
it
issimplyaratiooftwoquantitieswiththesameunit(Fig.
1.2).
~-~c--=-----()·
~---
P"
p
~~:'I~----~---~
·1
Fig.1.2
Since,inpractice,theextensionsofmaterialsunderloadareverysmall,itisoftenconvenienttomeasurethestrainsintheformofstrainx10-
6,
i.e,
microstroin,
whenthe
symbol
used
becomes
flt.
Alternatively,straincan
be
expressedasa
percentagestrain
strain
(t):::;;
6L
x100%
L
r.e,
1.4.Signconvention(ordirectstressandstrainTensilestressesandstrainsareconsideredPOSITIVEinsenseproducingan
increase
inlength.CompressivestressesandstrainsareconsideredNEGATIVEinsenseproducinga
decrease
inlength.
 
§1.5
SimpleStressandStrain
3
1.5.Elasticmaterials~Hooke'slawAmaterialissaidtobe
elastic
ifitreturnstoitsoriginal,unloadeddimensionswhenloadisremoved.Aparticularformofelasticitywhichappliestoalargerangeofengineeringmaterials,atleastoverpartoftheirloadrange,producesdeformationswhichareproportionaltotheloadsproducingthem.Sinceloadsareproportionaltothestressestheyproduceanddeformationsareproportionaltothestrains,thisalsoimpliesthat,whilstmaterialsareelastic,stressisproportionaltostrain.
Hooke'slaw,
initssimplestform",thereforestatesthatstress
(0)
oc
strain
(e)
i.e.
stress
--..-=
constant"stram
It
will
beseeninlatersectionsthatthislawisobeyedwithincertainlimits
by
mostferrousalloysand
it
canevenbeassumedtoapplytootherengineeringmaterialssuch
as
concrete,timberandnon-ferrousalloyswithreasonableaccuracy.Whilstamaterialiselasticthedeformationproducedbyanyloadwillbe
completely
recoveredwhentheloadisremoved;thereisnopermanentdeformation.Otherclassificationsofmaterialswithwhichthereadershouldbeacquaintedareasfollows:Amaterialwhichhasauniformstructurethroughoutwithoutanyflawsordiscontinuitiesistermeda
homogeneous
material.
Non-homogeneous
or
inhomogeneous
materialssuchasconcreteandpoor-qualitycastironwillthushaveastructurewhichvariesfrompainttopointdependingonitsconstituentsandthepresenceofcastingflawsorimpurities.
If
amaterialexhibitsuniformpropertiesthroughoutinalldirectionsitissaidtobe
isotropic;
converselyonewhichdoesnotexhibitthisuniformbehaviourissaidtobe
non-isotropic
or
anisotropic.
An
orthotropic
materialisonewhichhasdifferentpropertiesindifferentplanes.Atypicalexampleofsuchamaterialiswood,althoughsomecompositeswhichcontainsystematicallyorientated"inhomogeneities"mayalsobeconsideredtofanintothiscategory.1.6.Modulusofelasticity-Young'smodulusWithintheelasticlimitsofmaterials,i.e.withinthelimitsinwhichHooke'slawapplies,ithasbeenshownthatstress
--.-=
constantstramThisconstantisgiventhesymbol
E
andtermedthe
modulusofelasticity
or
Young'smodulus.
E
=
stress
=~
strain
e
Thus
(1.1)
P
st.
PL
=A-:"Y=
A~L
(1.2)
ReadersshouldbewarnedthatinmorecomplexstresscasesthissimpleformofHooke'slaw
will
nolapplyand
mis-applicationcouldprovedangerous;see§14.l,page361.

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