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Fish Aff k Stuff (Gonzaga)

Fish Aff k Stuff (Gonzaga)

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Published by: AffNeg.Com on Jan 08, 2009
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09/15/2012

 
Gonzaga University 
1
12095735.doc 8/5/08
File Title
Fish Aff/Neg Supplement
1 – Index2 – Cuomo3 – Chaloupka4 – Econ K 5-12 – A2: Famine K 13-14 – A2: Chaloupka15-17 – A2: Cuomo
 
Gonzaga University 
2
12095735.doc 8/5/08
File Title
Kritik—Cuomo
Seeing war an event obfuscates the continued legacy of state-sponsored violence going oneveryday. This ethic prevents mobilization against structural forms of violence that makethe outbreak of war inevitable.Cuomo 96
(Christine, Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cincinnati, “War Is NotJust an Event: Reflections on the Significance of Everyday Violence”, Hypatia, Vol. 11, Iss. 4, Fall,Proquest)
Theory that does not investigate or even notice the omnipresence of militarism cannot representor address the depth and specificity of the everyday effects of militarism
on women, on people living inoccupied territories, on members of military institutions, and on the environment. These effects are relevant to feminists in anumber of ways because
military practices and institutions help construct gendered and nationalidentity, and because they justify the destruction of natural nonhuman entities and communitiesduring peacetime. Lack of attention to these aspects of 
the business of making or 
preventing militaryviolence in an extremely technologized world results in theory that cannot accommodate theconnections among the constant presence of militarism
, declared wars, and other closely related social phenomena, such as nationalistic glorifications of motherhood, media violence, and current ideological gravitations tomilitary solutions for social problems.
Ethical approaches that do not attend to the ways in whichwarfare and military practices are woven into the very fabric of life in twenty-first centurytechnological states lead to crisis-based politics and analyses
. For any feminism that aims to resistoppression and create alternative social and political options,
crisis-based ethics and politics are problematicbecause they distract attention from the need for sustained resistance to the enmeshed,omnipresent systems of domination and oppression that so often function as givens in mostpeople's lives. Neglecting the omnipresence of militarism allows the false belief that the absenceof declared armed conflicts is peace, the polar opposite of war.
It is particularly easy for those whose livesare shaped by the safety of privilege, and who do not regularly encounter the realities of militarism, to maintain this false belief.
The belief that militarism is an ethical, political concern only regarding armed conflict,creates forms of resistance to militarism that are merely exercises in crisis control. Antiwarresistance is then mobilized when the "real" violence finally occurs, or when the stability of privilege is directly threatened, and at that point it is difficult not to respond in ways that makeresisters drop all other political priorities. Crisis-driven attention to declarations of war mightactually keep resisters complacent about and complicitous in the general presence of globalmilitarism. Seeing war as necessarily embedded in constant military presence draws attentionto the fact that horrific, state-sponsored violence is happening nearly all over, all of the time,and that it is perpetrated by military institutions and other militaristic agents of the state
.
Moving away from crisis-driven politics and ontologies concerning war and military violencealso enables consideration of relationships among seemingly disparate phenomena, andtherefore can shape more nuanced theoretical and practical forms of resistance
. For example,
investigating the ways in which war is part of a presence allows consideration of therelationships among the events of war and the following: how militarism is a foundational tropein the social and political imagination; how the pervasive presence and symbolism of soldiers/warriors/patriots shape meanings of gender; the ways in which threats of state-sponsored violence are a sometimes invisible/sometimes bold agent of racism, nationalism, andcorporate interests; the fact that vast numbers of communities, cities, and nations are currentlyin the midst of excruciatingly violent circumstances. It also provides a lens for considering therelationships among the various kinds of violence that get labeled "war."
Given current Americanobsessions with nationalism, guns, and militias, and growing hunger for the death penalty, prisons, and a more powerful police state, one cannot underestimate the need for philosophical and political attention to connections among phenomenalike the "war on drugs," the "war on crime," and other state-funded militaristic campaigns.
 
Gonzaga University 
3
12095735.doc 8/5/08
File Title
Kritik—Chaloupka
The discourse of nuclearism reduces subjects to strategic calculators that must think nuclear apocalypse into being.Chaloupka 92
(William, Professor of Political Science, University of Montana, Knowing Nukes: ThePolitics and Culture of the Atom. 21-22)
An oppositional politics, fully capable of problematizing this (hyper-) exuberant nuclearism, is possible on bases other than such suspect categories aseuphemism, survival, unspeakability, and numbing. Through out this book, I am trying to reposition antinuclearism within such a defensible political practice.At the very least, this implies an intellectual project: to paraphrase Foucault, there is a struggle over issues of knowledge, set off by nuclear criticism. The political mood of the language-and-politics position is well framed by nuclear criticism. More precisely, a political mood could yet form, one that wouldcontrast sharply with an exiting nuclear opposition that in the United States, has adopted a paradoxical structure, as if driven to mirror that paradoxes of nukesthemselves
.
Antinuke talk has been ponderous
 — 
so responsible and serious that it just obviouslydefeats itself, and must invent the defense that “people don’t really like to talk about nuclearwar very much.
” Paradoxically,
opponents then test that humorlessness by asking citizens tobecome independent entrepreneurs of risk, weighing the likelihood and amplitude of possibledisasters
. It should not be surprising that such a politics works only intermittently if at all. To summarize:
as obvious agoal as “survival” may be, it nonetheless carries with it a series of code and a rhetoric. Survivalimplies a global unquestionable project- a faith really- and it therefore brings along baggage wemight not wish to carry.
Following Foucault’s model of the specific intellectual, intervening in the relations of power and knowledge, we can identify some of this baggage.
When we approach survival
(and humanism, and liberalismin general) from that angle,
we see some primary terms becoming far more problematic than we mayhave understood
. The unspeakability of nukes—part of a characteristic liberal injunction to speak—turns out, instead,to point to a problem with the whole scheme of representation. Furthermore,
our concern with technologicaldependence and accidents turns out to beg important issues of agency.
In the wake of these discoveries,we should at least suspect that it is disciplinary power—more than technology, or reticence to speak or a too-awesome topic —that has been accumulating. And in the face of that accumulation,
the injunction to aid survival and counterunspeakability by simply canceling euphemism is obviously just too limited a response
. Inupcoming chapters, I will try to suggest a different sort of opposition, informed by the theoretical considerations outlinedabove.
Even if principled renunciations of the nuke—in the name of humanity or survival—havemisfired, other interventions may be possible, may even be better
.
Fearing the Bomb buys into a mode of nuclear opposition that grants control of the debateto nuclear proponents, preventing change.Chaloupka 92
(William, Professor of Political Science, University of Montana, Knowing Nukes: ThePolitics and Culture of the Atom. 21-22)
Like few other issues,
nuclearism strains to become more than an instance. It aspires to be contextand case, to shape public and private life.
It seeks a symbolic position of such force that other concerns wouldarise within the context of nuclear technology, sometimes even when explicit, connections are absent. The policies, practices, and discourses of nuclear technology seem to have a capacity to capture attention that rivals even their destructivecapability. In short,
nuclearism organizes public life and thought so thoroughly that, in another eraof political theory, we would analyze it as an ideology.
The framework of survival or defense has become pervasive in Western political cultures, dominating not only the budgets and debates of public life but the more privatedimensions as well. In our time, when one dreams of public life, the fantasies may even be atomic. The level of compulsionattendant to nuclear questions could become a subject of interpretation; a critic could choose to discuss these questions asmore fundamental than issues that merely confirm existing frameworks and habits.
For citizens of nuclear states,nukes are the metaphors for success and failure, the constraints for experimentation, theanalogy for all other “problems.
Nonetheless, these same citizens seem reluctant to take nukes so seriously. The background for my project is a suspicion that a sort of conservatism, a slowness to move, characterizes even the mostalarmist talk of nukes.
The various positions on nuclearism are phrased within familiar political waysof speaking, despite their proponents’ considered judgment that precisely these undertakingshave made the world so different, so dangerous. The nuclearism adopted by states anddiplomats presumes a Machiavellian counterbalance of threats, while opponents presume theefficacy of humanist commitment. Despite obvious differences, both positions reinforce acontemporary, ideological ways of understanding politics.

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