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1 Gprs

1 Gprs

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Published by Adeel Muhammad
GPRS related protocols. Very good document.
GPRS related protocols. Very good document.

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Published by: Adeel Muhammad on Jun 30, 2012
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ABSTRACT
ForalmostthreeyearstheEuropeanTelecommunicationsStandardsInstitute(ETSI)hasbeenworkingonthespecificationofgeneralpacketradioservice(GPRS)fortheGlobalSystemforMobileCommunications(GSM).Inthecourseof1997standardizationwillcometoanend,andafirstintroductionofGPRSbyaserviceproviderornetworkoperatorislikelytotakeplacein1999.Thenewservicewillaccommodatedataconnectionswithvariablebitratesandhighbandwidthefficiency,andthusoffersthepossibilitytoattractawiderangeofnewapplicationstoGSMnetworks.InthisarticlepossibleapplicationsandelementaryconceptsandservicecharacteristicsofGPRSwillbeexplainedindetail.Furthermore,amediumaccesscontrolprotocolthatconformstothedraftstandardproposalfortheGPRSairinterfacewillbeintroducedandanalyzed.Thereafter,thesimulationmodelwillbedescribedandsimulationresultswillbepresented.Theperformanceanalysiscarriedoutshowsreasonableperformanceevenunderhighloadconditions.
Concepts,Services,andProtocols.
of
theNewGSMPhase
2
+
GeneralPacketRadioService
G6tzBrascheandBernhardWalke,AachenUniversityofTechnology
U
ptonow,themainapplicationofmostmobileradiosystems,likethepan-EuropeanGlobalSystemforMobileCommunications(GSM)[1],hasbeenmobiletelephony.Morerecently,theuseofdataapplicationslikefacsimiletrans-missionorshortmessageexchangeisbecomingmorepopular.Thefactthatthedisseminationandacceptanceofmobileradiosystemsismuchbetterthanexpectedcharacterizesthe'90s,inwhichtherequirementforhumanmobilityisbecom-ingmoreandmoreimportant.Thus,thedemandforall-embracingmobilecommunicationatanytimeandplaceissteadilyincreasing.Althougheveninthefuturemobiletele-phonywillkeepitsdominantroleinmobilecommunications,newmarketsareopeningup.Examplesarewirelesspersonalcomputers,mobileoffices,andelectronicfundstransfer,aswellasroadtransport
telern-
atics,fieldservicebusinesses,fleetmanagement,andremotetelematics.Seenfromatechnicalviewpoint,applicationsthatarecon-nectedtothesemarketsarecharacterizedbyburstytraffic.Inthatcase,packet-switchedaccessmechanismsareknowntogivebetterutilizationofthetransmissionmediumthancir-cuit-switchedones;thetransmissionmediumisusedondemandonlyand,withstatisticalmultiplexing,onephysicalchannelcanbesharedbymanyusers.Consequently,emergingandfuturedigitalmobileradiosystemsbasedontime-divisionmultipleaccess(TDMA),suchasthetrans-Europeantrunkedradiosystem(TETRA),willapplyapacket-switchedapproachratherthanthecircuit-switchedone,asiscurrentlyusedinGSM.Fromtheuser'sviewpointpacketizedtransmissionwithinGSMwillbemoreconvenientnotonlybecauseofthenewser-vicesthatcouldbeprovided.Incontrasttotime-orientedchargingappliedforcircuit-switchedconnections,packet-switcheddataserviceswillallowchargingdependingontheamountofdatatransmittedandthequalityofservicenegotiated.Inordertosatisfytheincreasinguserrequirementsandtopreservecompetitiveness,onemajorconcernofGSMPhase2+development,ledbytheEuropeanTelecommunicationsStandardsInstitute(ETSI),hasbeentospecifyageneralpacketradioservice(GPRS)thataccommodatesdataconnec-tionswithhighbandwidthefficiency.Inthisarticle,thekeyconceptsofGPRSareexplained,basedonaninterpretationoftheworkingassumptionsoftheongoingstandardizationwithinETSI.First,generalrequire-mentsimposedbytheendusersandnetworkoperatorsarestudied,andanoverviewoftheGPRSservicecharacteristicsisgiven.Then,thelogicalarchitectureandnewGSMnetworkcomponentsthatarerequiredtosupportpacketswitchingaredescribedbeforethefunctionalmodelsforroutingandmobil-itymanagementareintroduced.Thereafter,thedatacommunicationarchitectureforbothsignalinganddatatransmissionisdiscussed.EmphasisisputontheGPRSairinterfacesinceperformanceofpacketdataservicesisstronglyinfluencedbyefficientuseofthescarceradioresource.Withthemaster-slavedynamicrateaccess(MSDRA)protocol,amediumaccesscontrol(MAC)proto-colisintroducedthatadherestothedraftGPRSairinterfacestandardproposal[2].Theprotocolischaracterizedbydynamicbandwidthallocationandmultislotoperation;thatis,onemobilestationmayusemorethanonetimeslotofoneormorechannelsdedicatedtoGPRSatagiventime.Theremainingpartofthearticledealswiththeperfor-manceanalysisoftheprotocol.First,thesimulationassump-tionsareclarifiedandevaluationcriterialikemeanpacketdelayandthroughputagainstchannelutilizationaredefined.Then,thesimulationenvironmentthathasbeendevelopedforperformanceanalysisisdescribed.TheGPRSprotocolsimulationtool
GPRSim
iscapableofmodelingdifferentinputtrafficaswellasrealisticradiochannelbehavior,andincludesfeaturesforgraphicalrepresentationoftheprotocol
94
0163-6804/97/$10.00
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1997IEEEIEEECommunicationsMagazine
>
August1997
 
andchannelstates.Finally,thesimulationresultsarediscussedandconclusionsaredrawn.
GENERALPACKETRADIOSERVICE
T
hemainintentionofthespecificationofaGPRShasbeentoenlargethelimitedrangeofexistingGSMdataservicesofferingdataratesupto9.6kb/sonly.Toenablesupportofnewdataapplicationswithaconvenientqualityofservice,theGPRSconceptforeseesbitratesofnearly170kb/sthatcanbeflexiblyallocatedaccordingtoactualuserdemands.
ApPLICATIONSANDREQUIREMENTSFOR
GPRS
Theprimaryinterestofendusersofanewpacketdataserviceisthatapplicationsusedtorunwithintheirfixedcomputerenvironmentshouldbesup-portedatmoderatecostandwithoutnotablechangesinoperation.TheuserviewofGPRSisillustratedinFig.1.WirelessPCsorso-calledmobileofficesshouldsupportanyconventionalInternet-basedapplica-tion,likefiletransfer,transmissionandreceptionofe-mail,or"surfing"theInternetviatheWorldWideWeb.Videoisbeingperceivedasakeyelementofmul-timediaservices,andaconsiderableamountofstandardiza-tionefforthasbeenfocusedonthetaskofreducingbandwidthdemands.TherecentlycompletedInternationalTelecommu-nicationsUnion-TelecommunicationsStandardizationSec-tor(ITU-T)RecommendationH.263specifiesalow-bit-ratevideocompressionalgorithm,whileInternationalOrganiza-tionforStandardization/InternationalElectrotechnicalCom-mission(ISO/IEC)MPEG-4hasenteredacollaborativephase.Basedonthesestandardsandonvideohardwarechipsforthemobileenvironmentthathaverecentlybeendevelopedwithcompressionratesofupto80percent,eventransmissionofvideoinformation(e.g.,forvideoconferencing)seemstobeapplicableforGPRS.Anotherveryimportantapplicationareaisrepresentedbyroadtrafficandtransportinformatics(RTTI)applications.GSM/GPS(GlobalPositioningSystem)basedautomaticfeecollection(AFC)systemsarealreadywithinthetestphase.ThesesystemsusetheGSMshortmessageservice(SMS)forinformationexchange.GPRSiswellsuitedtoreplaceSMS,ormayatleastbeusedasanSMSbearer.Distributionoftrafficcontrolinfor-mationsuchasroadandweatherconditionsorrouteguidanceandparkingmanagementareotherRTTIapplicationswhichcouldbeservedbyGPRS.Theinternationalrailwaybody,
IIIFigure1.
GPRSseenfromtheuser'spointofview.
theUnionInternationaledesCheminsdeFer(UIC)intendstoreplacetheexistingincompatiblenationaltraincontrolsys-temsbyaGPRS-basedEuropeantraincontrolsystem(ETCS).1Otherpossibleapplicationsareconnectedtofinancialtransactions.Electroniccashorfundtransfersdonothaveveryhighcommunicationrequirements,andGPRScouldbeusedasabearerfortheseapplicationsaswell.BecauseofcapacityconstraintscausedbytheavailableGSMbandwidth,transmissionofverylargedatavolumesbypacketswitchingwouldsignificantlyincreasetheblockingrate.Hence,GPRSshouldespeciallyconsidertransmissionofsmalldatavolumes.Variouselectronicdevices,eitherstaticormobile,couldbeequippedwithaGSM/GPRStransceiver.Applicationscouldbenotificationofalarms,collectionofsen-sorvalues,anddeliveryofstatistics,forexample.Thus,therangeofpossibleapplicationsforGPRS(Table1)coverssimple
distribution
and
messagingservices
aswellasadvanced
retrieval
and
conferencingservices
thatprovidemulti-directionalcommunicationviareal-timeinformationtransferbetweenmultipleusers.Thetransmissioncharacteristicsoftheseapplicationsvaryfromfre-quenttransmissionsofsmallvol-umestoinfrequenttransmissionsofsmallormediumdatavolumes.Ingeneral,themessagesizeisbelow500bytes,butinsomecases,likefiletransfer,thelengthmayevenbeontheorderofseveralkilobytes.Tosatisfythesedifferentappli-cationneeds,areasonablepacketserviceshouldprovidebothconnec-tionlessandconnection-orientedpoint-to-point(PTP)packetmodetransferaswellasmulticastandgroupcallpoint-to-multipoint(PTM)services.Invocationofthesedifferenttypesofservicerequestsshouldbesupportedfrombothfixedandmobileaccesspoints
1
AspartofGMSPhase
2+,
circuit-switchedvoicegroupcallandvoicebroad-castcallservicesarebeingstandardized.Becauseofpossiblesimilaritiestheseadvancedspeechcallitems(ASCI)havebeenreviewedwithinETSISMGGRPSadhoc.Fordetailsthereaderisreferredto
G.
Brasche,"PrototypeImplementationandEvaluationofNewPacketDataPro-tocolsforGSM,"Dissertation,AachenUniversityofTechnology,Germany,1997.
IInable1.
PossibleGPRSapplications.
IEEECommunicationsMagazine
>
August1997
95
 
whereapplicable.Moreover,bothdataaccesstoandinter-workingwithdifferentpublicstandarddatanetworksisaprerequisitefordataapplica-tionstobeservedreason-ably.Naturally,thisrequiresprovisionofappropriatesecurityfeaturesaswell.II
Table
2.
GPRSQoSattributes.
Thinkingaboutthedesignofpacket-orienteddataser-vices,mostimportanttonetworkprovidersandoperatorsishowcheaplythenewservicescanbeintegratedintotheexist-ingnetworks.Therefore,onefundamentalrequirementshouldbetodevelopthenewservicesasanextensionofexistingGSMtele-andbearerservices,andtomodifyGSMnetworkcomponentsasmoderatelyaspossible.Avariablequalityofservice(OoS)shouldberegardedasanotherimportantrequirementthatstronglyinfluencestheattractivenessofGPRS.Additionally,inordernottoendan-gerprofitabilityoftraditionalservices,anewsetofservicesshouldbeprovidedratherthanreplacingorduplicatingexist-ingGSMservices.ThisimpliestheneedtorindependentoperationandparalleluseofGPRSwithconventionalGSMservices.Consequently,itisimportanttoconsideraneconom-icalandadaptiveuseofavailablebandwidthaccordingtotheactualnetworkloadandapplicationrequirements.
SERVICE
CHARACTERISTICS
SinceGSMhasbeendesignedforcircuit-switchedtransmis-siononly,introductionofapacket-switchingtechniqueobvi-ouslyevokessomesignificantfunctionalandoperationalchanges.Beforethesetechnicalissuesaretreated,acloserlookattheGPRSservicecharacteristicsspecifiedsofarrevealsthattherequirementsconnectedtoaGPRSaremetsatisfactorily.Regardingtheofferedservice,GPRSallowsthesubscribertosendandreceivedatainanend-to-endpackettransfermode,withoutusinganynetworkresourcesincircuit-switchedmode.ThisallowsforautonomousoperationofGPRSandbestfitstheburstytrafficcharacteristics.Packetroutingandtransferwithinthepubliclandmobilenetwork(PLMN)issupportedbydefinitionofanewlogicalnetworknodecalleda
GPRSsupportnode
(GSN).ThefeaturetosetupmultiplePTPdialoguesandmaintaintheseoverlongperiodsoftimeforbackgroundapplicationsisconsideredbythepossibilityofestablishingmultipleparallelsessions.DuringthesesessionsPTPnondialogueand/orPTMcommunicationwillbepossibleinparallel.Inadditiontopar-allelGPRSsessions,simultaneoususeofGPRSandtradition-alcircuit-switchedGSMservices,includingSMS,willbeprovided.Dependingonavailablebandwidthandmobilesta-tion(MS)capabilities,parallelsimultaneoususeiscorrelatedwithdegradationoftheOoSorevencallrejection.Forthecoordinationofcircuit-andpacket-switchedser-vices,anassociationbetweentheGSMmobileswitchingcen-ter(MSC)andtheGSNiscreated.Thisassociationisusedtokeeproutingandlocationareainformationuptodateinbothentities.Furthermore,itenablescombinedGMS/GPRSattachmentaswellaspagingofcircuit-switchedcallswithintheGPRSnetwork.ExchangeofshortmessagesviaGPRSisconsideredbyconnectingtheGSMSMS-MSCtotheservingGSN(SGSN),too.Althoughtransmissionofpacketizedspeechwouldbepossible,thishasbeenoutsidethescopeofGPRSthusfar.AspectsofflexibilityarecoveredbyonlineconfigurationofradioresourcesdedicatedtoGPRSbythenetworkoperatorwithoutinterruptionofser-vice.Thepossibilityofrespondingtolocaldatatraf-ficconditionsadaptivelyisviathelogicalchannelconcept,whichwillbedescribedlater.Thesenetworkdynamicsarecompletelyhiddentothesubscriber,althoughdifferentserviceprofilesintermsofthroughput,delay,andpriori-tycanbenegotiatedbetweenserviceproviderandsubscriber.Throughput,peak,andmeanbitratescanbenegotiated,whiletransferdelayandpriority-areclassifiedbyfourQoSclasses.Threeclassespredictivelyspecifythemeantransferdelayand95percentdelay,asshowninTable2.Thefourthclassdoesnotinduceanydelayvalue.HandlingoftheseQoSparametersissubjecttoradioresourcemanagementbymeansofservicedisciplinesthatsupportpriorities.TheOoSsarecorrelatedtomultiplesubscriberprofiles.IncontrasttotheexistingGSM,GPRSsubscriptionmanagementisservice-specific;thatis,userscanactivateeachservicetowhichtheyaresubscribedseparately.Chargingisbasedonsubscriptionfeespaidregularlyforafixedperiodandtrafficfeespaidasafunctionofdatavolume,typeofservicerequest,andQoS.Thechargingmethodwillbesimilartothoseusedinexistingpacketdatanetworks(PDNs).RegardlessofthesubscriberprofileandOoSnegotiated,datareliabilityintermsofresidualerrorratesforlost,cor-rupt,duplicate,orout-of-sequenceSDUsisspecifiedtobe10-
9
forgroupcommunicationandintherangeof10-
4
-10-
5
formulticastcommunication.ThisisensuredbyappropriateerrordetectionandcorrectionproceduresperformedbytheprotocolsattheGPRSairinterface
Urn.
WiththetraditionalGSM,theinternationalSignalingSwitchNo.7
(SS7)
networkisusedforinformationexchangebetweendifferentoperators.Securityisbasedonnetworkaccesscon-trolwithoutapplyingspecificsecuritymethods.WithinGPRS,thepotentialriskforintrudersishighersincethereisalargernumberofpossibleaccesspoints,andinterworkingwithpub-licdatanetworksliketheInternetwillbesupported.Inordertoprotectthesystemagainstmisuseofresourcesbyunauthorizedpersonsandeavesdroppingontheinforma-tionbeingexchangedontheradiopath,thebasicsecurityprinciplefollowsthatalreadyusedinGSM.Securityisprovid-edbetweenthenetworkelementsbyauthentication,ciphering,anduseoffirewalls,insteadofusingextrasecurityprotocols.Atemporarylogicallinkidentityprovidesuserconfidentiality.SimilartoexistingGSMnetworks,serviceaccesswillbepossi-blewhileroamingbetweennetworks,providedasuitableinterna-tionalsignalingmechanismexists.TheroamingitselfissupportedbyGPRS-specificgatewaystobeinstalledbetweentwoGSMnetworksdependingontheoperators'roamingagreement.Asalreadysuggested,GPRSwillofferdatatransfercapa-bilitiesbetweentwoMSs,orbetweenanMSandvariouster-minals,attachedtoeithertheGPRSnetworkortheexternalPDN.Twotypesofserviceswillbesupported,PTPandPTM.ThePTPservicewillbeofferedeitherconnectionlessorcon-
2
Thetransferdelayincludestheuplinkradiochannelaccess(ordownlinkradiochannelschedulingdelay),theradiochanneltransitdelay,andtheGPRSnetworktransitdelay;delayscausedbyfixednetworksorotherPLMNsarenotconsidered.ThepriorityindicatestheimportanceofthepacketwithregardtodiscardingitincaseofproblemsanddegradationofQoSwhennecessary.
96
IEEECommunicationsMagazine
>
August1997

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