I. Presumption and Applicability of Custom
In case of doubt in the interpretation or application of laws, it is presumed that thelawmaking body intended right and justice to prevail.
Customs which are contrary to law, public order or public policy shall not becountenanced.
A custom must be proved as a fact, according to the rules of evidence.
J. Legal Periods
When the lawsspeak of years, months, days or nights, it shall be understood thatyears are of three hundred sixty-five days each; months, of thirty days; days, of twenty-fourhours; and nights from sunset to sunrise.If months are designated by their name, they shallbe computed by the number of days which they respectively have.In computing a period, the first day shall be excluded, and the last day included
K. Applicability of Penal Laws
Penal laws and those of public security and safety shall be obligatory upon all wholive or sojourn in Philippine territory, subject to the principles of public international law and to treaty stipulations.
is defined as "a rule of conduct formed by repetition of acts, uniformly observed (practiced)as a social rule, legally binding and obligatory." The law requires that "a custom must be proved as afact, according to the rules of evidence." On this score the Court had occasion to state that "a localcustom as a source of right cannot be considered by a court of justice unless such custom is properlyestablished by competent evidence like any other fact." The same evidence, if not one of a higherdegree, should be required of a foreign custom
Art. 13Superseded by Sec. 31, Book I of EO 292 (Administrative Code of 1987) w/c provides thatSec. 31.
"Year" shall be understood to be twelve (12) calendar months; "months" of thirty (30) days, unless it refers to a specific calendar month in which case it shall be computedaccording to the number of days the specific month contains; "day," to a day of twenty four (24) hours;and "nights," from sunset to sunrise.This article applies only to legal provisions and not to contracts, where the parties may stipulate onthe manner of computing years, months and days (Baviera).