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What is GIS

What is GIS

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Published by Zarraf Tajwar Adib

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Published by: Zarraf Tajwar Adib on Jun 30, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Chapter One
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Geographic Information System(GIS)
A Geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate,analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS is sometimesused for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to theacademic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems
In thesimplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis,anddatabase technology.A Geographic Information System (GIS) should be thought of as being much more than
means of coding, storing, and retrieving the data about the aspects of earth’s surface,
because these data can be accessed, ,transformed, and manipulated interactively for studyingenvironmental process, analyzing the results for trends ,or anticipating the possible resultsof planning decisions.
Definition Of GIS
“In common parlance, a geographic information system or GIS is a configuaration of computer hardware and software specifically designed for the acquisition, maintainance anduse of cartographic data.” C. Dana Tomlin
“A geographic information system(GIS) is an information system that is designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is bothadatabase system with specific capabilities for spatially
referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working data. In a sense, a GIS may be thought of as a higher 
order map.” jeffery Star and John Estes
“GIS is A powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming anddisplaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purpose.”Peter A.Burrough ,1986
“GIS is a computer based system that provides for sets of capabilities to handlegeoreferenced data: data input, data management(data storage and reteival), manipulationand analysis and data output.”
Arnoff, 1989
Finally, we can say,
A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software,and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographicallyreferenced information.
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History of GIS:
In the London City Cholera was spread out in 1854. Soho a British researcher noticed that,cholera is more spread in some water pump area. From this Soho confirm that, choleraspread from some polluted water pump. Then he showed by the map through the collectionof information about the disease & the affected people. As a result the problem can beidentified & necessary steps have been taken. This work gets praised in London. In thefollowing shows in the amp the location of water pump & the amount of cholera death.
Most of the GIS scientist think about Soho’s spatial & non
-spatial data presentation isintroduction of GIS.GIS and map analysis developments began around the same time as related developments incomputer cartography and spatial statistics. They were promoted by the limitations of hard-copy maps, problems with overlaying data sets and the increasing size and number of available data sets (Tomlinson, 1988).The ini
tial development (in the 1960’s) were technical and were aimed at developing a set
of spatial data handling and analysis tools that could be used with geographical database forrepeated problem solving (Tomlinson, 1988).One of the first systems called GIS appeared in Canada in 1964. Godchild (1995) considersthat the roots of current GIS lie in the 1960s, and then pioneering work by the US Bureau of Census that lead to the digital input of in 1970 Census.In turn, these developments influenced work at the Harvard Graphics Laboratory, which leddirectly to the production of some of the first commercial GIS software, including thepackage ARC/INFO.
The Canadian Geographic Information System (CGIS) used data collected for the LandInventory System and was developed as a result of the requirements of the CanadianAgriculture and Development Act. It was designed to produce maps of the crops that areasof land were capable of producing and to map land capability for forestry (based on soil,climate, drainage and physical land characteristics).Over the years CGIS has been modified and improved to keep pace with technology and theequipments are now. For example, microcomputers are now used for data input analysis.

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