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14 Auto Reclosing

14 Auto Reclosing

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Published by Tirthankar Datta

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Published by: Tirthankar Datta on Jul 01, 2012
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04/16/2013

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Introduction14.1Application of auto-reclosing14.2Auto-reclosing on HV distribution networks14.3Factors influencing HV auto-reclose schemes14.4Auto-reclosing on EHV transmission lines14.5High speed auto-reclosing on EHV systems14.6Single-phase auto-reclosing14.7High speed auto-reclosing on linesemploying distance schemes14.8Delayed auto-reclosing on EHV systems14.9Operating features of auto-reclose schemes14.10Auto-close circuits14.11Examples of auto-reclose applications14.12
14
 Auto-Reclosin
Chap14 -218-231 17/06/02 9:37 Page 218
 
 Network Protection & Automation Guide• 219 •
14.1 INTRODUCTION
Faults on overhead lines fall into one of three categories:
a.
transient
b.
semi-permanent
c.
permanent80-90% of faults on any overhead line network aretransient in nature. The remaining 10%-20% of faultsare either semi-permanent or permanent.Transient faults are commonly caused by lightning andtemporary contact with foreign objects. The immediatetripping of one or more circuit breakers clears the fault.Subsequent re-energisation of the line is usually successful.A small tree branch falling on the line could cause asemi-permanent fault. The cause of the fault would notbe removed by the immediate tripping of the circuit, butcould be burnt away during a time-delayed trip. HV overhead lines in forest areas are prone to this type of fault. Permanent faults, such as broken conductors, andfaults on underground cable sections, must be locatedand repaired before the supply can be restored.Use of an auto-reclose scheme to re-energise the lineafter a fault trip permits successful re-energisation of the line. Sufficient time must be allowed after trippingfor the fault arc to de-energise prior to reclosingotherwise the arc will re-strike. Such schemes have beenthe cause of a substantial improvement in continuity of supply. A further benefit, particularly to EHV systems, isthe maintenance of system stability and synchronism.A typical single-shot auto-reclose scheme is shown inFigures 14.1 and 14.2. Figure 14.1 shows a successfulreclosure in the event of a transient fault, and Figure14.2 an unsuccessful reclosure followed by lockout of thecircuit breaker if the fault is permanent.
14.2 APPLICATION OF AUTO-RECLOSING
The most important parameters of an auto-reclosescheme are:
1.
dead time
2.
reclaim time
3.
single or multi-shotThese parameters are influenced by:
a.
type of protection
b.
type of switchgear
c.
possible stability problems
d.
effects on the various types of consumer loads
14
 Auto-Reclosin
Chap14 -218-231 17/06/02 9:37 Page 219
 
 Network Protection & Automation Guide
The weighting given to the above factors is different forHV distribution networks and EHV transmission systemsand therefore it is convenient to discuss them underseparate headings. Sections 14.3 and 14.4 cover theapplication of auto-reclosing to HV distribution networkswhile Sections 14.5-14.9 cover EHV schemes.The rapid expansion in the use of auto-reclosing has ledto the existence of a variety of different control schemes.The various features in common use are discussed inSection 14.10. The related subject of auto-closing, thatis, the automatic closing of normally open circuitbreakers, is dealt with in Section 14.11.
14.3 AUTO-RECLOSING ON HV DISTRIBUTIONNETWORKS
On HV distribution networks, auto-reclosing is appliedmainly to radial feeders where problems of systemstability do not arise, and the main advantages to bederived from its use can be summarised as follows:
a.
reduction to a minimum of the interruptions of supply to the consumer
b.
instantaneous fault clearance can be introduced, withthe accompanying benefits of shorter fault duration,less fault damage, and fewer permanent faultsAs 80% of overhead line faults are transient, eliminationof loss of supply from this cause by the introduction of auto-reclosing gives obvious benefits through:
a.
improved supply continuity
b.
reduction of substation visitsInstantaneous tripping reduces the duration of the
14
      A    u     t    o   -      R    e    c      l    o    s      i    n    g
• 220
Reclaim timeTimeDead timeClosingpulse timeReclose initiated by protectionRelay ready to respond to further fault incidents(after successful reclosure)Contactsfully openContactsseparateTrip coilenergisedArcextinguishedResetsOperatesOperatingtimeOperating timeOpeningtimeArcingtimeDead timeClosingtimeClosing circuitenergisedContactsmakeContactsfully closedInstant of faultSystem disturbance timeAuto-reclose relayTransientfaultCircuitbreakerProtection
Figure 14.2: Operation of single-shot auto-reclose scheme on a permanent fault 
TimeDead timeClosingpulse timeReclose initiatedby protectionDead timeOperating timeOpeningtimeClosingtimeTrip coilenergised
Trip coilenergisedContactsseparateArcextinguishedContactsfully openClosing circuitenergisedContactsmakeContactsfully closedContactsseparateArcExtinguishedContacts fullyopen
Relay locks out for protectionre-operation before reclaimtime has elapsedArcingtimeOperatingtimeOperatesResetsRecloseon to faultOperatesResetsAuto-recloserelayCircuitbreakerProtectionPermanentfaultReclaim timestartsReclaim timeresets
Figure 14.1: Single-shot auto-reclose scheme operation for a transient fault 
 
Chap14 -218-231 17/06/02 9:37 Page 220

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