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Pumped hybrid storage plant

Pumped hybrid storage plant

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Published by Anshul Singla
optimmization of solar and wind energy with hydroenergy
optimmization of solar and wind energy with hydroenergy

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Published by: Anshul Singla on Jul 01, 2012
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04/19/2013

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Eureka Techkriti’12
:
 
On the Optimization of daily operation of pumped Solar-Wind Hybrid Plant
 
Anshul Singla
1
, Rahul Bhambri
1
 
1
Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee,Roorkee-247667 , Uttarakhand , Indiaanshulashu282@gmail.com,rbhambriiit@gmail.com
Abstract:
This paper describes an hourly-discretized optimization algorithm aiming to identify the optimum dailyoperational strategy for a Solar-Wind Hybrid Plant comprising of basic equipments like wind turbines, photovoltaic panels andhydro generation and pumping equipments, provided that a wind-power forecasting and sun insolation estimates are available. Asthe solar power is available only during the day time and in there is no power during the night . To provide sufficient power during the hydro generator and wind energy are used. The stochastic characteristics of the wind and solar power are exploited inthe approach developed in order to identify an envelope of recommended operational conditions. The developed approach hastwo main goals: 1) to improve the daily economic operational profit and 2) to smooth the operational power production changesthat are due to power profile fluctuations, and in this way keep the output power production within upper and lower limits.
1.
 
Introduction:
The increasing pressure for the need to intensify the participation of cleaner forms of energy production in the mixof electricity generation fostered the development and growth of wind and solar-power energy conversion systems, particularly in the India. Although wind and solar-energy conversion systems have attained a considerabletechnological maturity, the power output of these generators is however strongly conditioned by the variablecharacteristics of the wind and solar resource. This means that dispatchability is rather difficult, namely when thecontrol of the active power-generation output is required. Using the hydropower to compensate for the intermittentwind power, and the non availability of solar energy at night..To rationalize the electricity production cost and totake advantage of local wind potential, and the solar energy .Due to stochastic solar energy and wind power, a large portion of the demand may remain unserved. The use of Pumped Storage system units with energy sources reducesthe intermittency in the supplied power by compensating for the changes in combined power and increasing theamount of power served to the system. This paper deals with the formulation of an optimization problem to identifythe optimum daily operational strategy for a solar wind hybrid system facility. The facility, participating in a day-ahead electricity market. Then, the mathematical model of proposed methodology is formulated. Next, an algorithmis presented to solve the developed optimization problem; finally, the results with test system are presented and therelevant conclusions are derived.
1.1
 
Problem Definition:
Due to load variations on the power grid, power stations such as coal-fired plants and nuclear power plants andrenewable energy power plants are not able to provide base-load electricity and operate at peak efficiency. Risingfossil fuel costs and environmental impact of burning fossil fuels also put tremendous load on renewable energysources to supply more and more of the electrical energy .But these sources of energy ,such as, Solar energy, being
erratic, fluctuating and seasonal can’t be considered as a reliable
-continuous source of energy and hence needmodification.
1.2 Solutions:
 To improve the output controllability of the hybrid system, a pumped-storage hydro system is added to the park for load balancing , that pumps water from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation. During the day hours windenergy and the solar energy are enough for supplying grid load during high demand and have power for pumping.But in night only wind energy and hydro generator are available for providing sufficient demand laods.and in nightdemand load is also low. If no energy is produced due to unavailablitiy of sun rays and wind power then that time
 
Low-cost off-peak electric power is used to run the pumps. During periods of high electrical demand, the storedwater is released through turbines to produce electric power. Consider a typical plant of around 35 acres which isable to produce max solar power of 5MW and contains 3 wind turbines of total capacity 6MW. Total capacity of the plant is 11MW. Maximum energy store in reservoir 24MW.
2. Details about the optimization Problem
The proposed model was developed exploiting two ideas:1) to improve the daily economic operational profit and2) smoothen the operational power production changes due to power profile fluctuations, and in this way keep theoutput power production within upper and lower limits.To increase its competitiveness in the energy market and to increase its operational value, hybrid parks should beable to guarantee, at the beginning of the day, energy availability for up to 24 hourly periods ahead. Instead of controllable generation plants, electricity production depends of the variations in the primary source of energy. Theaccuracy of the forecasted wind power ,solar power and the energy storage ability should enable the determinationof the width of an output generation interval for the hours ahead. To improve the output controllability of thecombined solar and the wind generation, an hydro system is added to the wind park, consisting of: 1) a water pumpstation that elevates water from a source (i.e., river, lake, reservoir) to an upper water reservoir, using exclusivelythe electric power produced by the wind generators; 2) a mini hydroelectric power plant (eventually, these latter twoequipments can be replaced by a single reversible hydraulic pump/turbine); and 3) penstock and pumping pipes.Although the hydraulic equipments and the wind park can be located in different places, in the present work anelectrical proximity between them is assumed.
2.1 Input data
1.) Forecast of wind energy and solar energy for the next 24 hour.2.) Vector hourly Market power prices.Reliable estimates are done for next 24 h on hourly basis .
Figure1. Estimates for next 24h on hourly basis
2.2 Optimizing problem
 The maximization of 24-h operational profit of the hybrid system is wanted. For that purpose , optimization problemwas formulated, through maximization of economic gain that results from energy delivered to the grid, consideringthe main operational restrictions of the system and a discretization in 24 hourly periods. The solution of this problem provides an operational strategy to be followed by the wind, solar ,hydro generator/pumping units during the nexthours.The algorithm obtains 24 samples of wind power and solar power , each of them representing their scenario. Samplevector of available wind power Pv, solar power Psp characterize these scenario. For each scenario the followingoptimization problem is solved:
01234560 5 10 15 20 25 30
   e   n   e   r   g   y   i   n   M   W 
hours
Wind power( MW)Solar energy(MW)
 
Max Σ (c
i
*P
i
-c
 p
*Pp
i
) +n*y*c
y.
(1<= i <=24)
….(1)
 Subject to constrains:P
i
= Pw
i
+ Ps
i
+ Ph
i.
….(2)
 
Pv
i
= Pw
i
+ Pp2
i
+ Pd2
i
 
.…
(3)Psp
i
= Ps
i
+ Pp1
i
+ Pd1
i
….(4)
 Pp
i
= Pp1
i
+ Pp2
i
.(5)E
i+1
= E
i
+ t(n
 p
*Pp
i
- Ph
i
/n
h
)
….(6)
 E
1
= 0
….(7)
 E
24
= 0
….(8)
 E
18
= 3/4*E
u
 
….(9)
 y*P
l
<= P
i
<= P
u
 
….(10)
 Pg
l
<= Pw
i
+ Pp2
i
<= Pg
u
 
….(11)
 Pg1
l
<= Psi + Pp1
i
<= Pg1
u
 
….(12)
 Ph
l
<= Ph
i
<= min(Ph
u
, n
h
*E
i
)
….(13)
 Pp
l
<= Pp
i
<=Pp
u
….(14)
 0 <= E
i
<= E
u
 
….(15)
 0 <=y <=1
….(16)
 Pd1
i
>= 0
….(17)
 Pd2
i
>= 0 i=1,…,24
 
….(18)
 l and u defines the lower and upper limit of particular variables.where the variables are the vectors describing:P-active hourly power output to the grid, Ph-active hourly power generated by hydro generator, Pp1 & Pp2
 – 
activeHourly power supplied to pump by wind energy and solar energy respectively, Pv-total power generated by windturbine,Pp-total power supplied to the pump- vector hourly energy power prices,Psp-total energy generated by solar  panels, c
 p
-cost required for maintenance for pump,Pd-total dumping power,Pd1&Pd2-dumping power by windturbine & solar panels respectively,E-energy storage levels in the reservoir in each hour , np-efficiency of hydro pump, nh-efficiency of hydro generator, Pw-power supplied to grid by wind turbine, Ps-power supplied by the solar  panels to the grid ,Pg &Pg1
 – 
power capacity of wind park and solar park respectively ,c
y
- penalty for generation below the lower output limits,
t- duration of each interval (1 h, in this case);n
 – 
number of discrete intervals.
 From the observation of the objective function (1), one can identify two terms:
• the first aims to maximize the profit in the active hourly
power (energy) delivered by the solar wind hybrid plant tothe grid, considering the internal pumping cost;
• the second component seeks to perform the requirement of delivering to the network a minimum output power.
When there are no possibilities to follow the schedule plan (the available wind and solar power plus the power thatcan be produced from the stored energy is below the lower output limit), the lower output bound is reduced using ay<1.0 as shown in equation (16). In those cases where the combined solar wind hybrid plant operation cancompensate an eventual wind solar -power shortage with power from water-stored energy, the variable y=1.0. Asthe lower limit should be respected in all the n intervals, the expression(c
y
*y) is multiplied by the number of discretization periods.As shown in (2), both the hydro production and the portion of the available solar and wind power directly deliveredto the grid constitute the output hourly active power of the Wind solar hybrid plant.From (3),(4), a fraction of the hourly available wind power and the solar energy is directly supplied to the gridduring the considered interval. Another portion of this can be stored (by using the hydro components) and deliveredin subsequent intervals. In some particular cases, it may happen that a part of the available wind energyand the solar energy could not be used.From (5) total pumping energy is sum of part of solar and wind energy used for pumping.Equation (6) describes the energy balance in the reservoir. At the beginning of the -interval, the energy in thereservoir is the initial level in the -interval plus the pumped energy, minus the energy supplied to the grid by thehydro generation during that same interval.

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