Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the on-sitegeneration of electricity and the utilisation ofthe heat that is a by-product of the generationprocess. For a wide range of buildings, CHP canoffer an economical method of providing heatand power which is less environmentally harmfulthan conventional methods. In these buildings,CHP is often the single biggest measure forreducing buildings-related carbon dioxide (CO
)emissions and running costs. Where applicable,building designers, specifiers and operatorsshould consider the option of CHP as analternative means of supplying energy.Where possible, buildings should be linkedtogether through heat networks to form moresignificant energy demands that benefit fromlarger CHP e.g. community heating. If this isnot possible, then consider supplying individualbuildings using CHP. A brief option appraisalshould always be carried out when replacingmajor plant or designing new systems to identifyif CHP might be viable. If CHP begins to look likea leading option then a full feasibility study willneed to be carried out. For detailed information,see CIBSE Applications Manual 12 (AM12).The use of CHP has proved cost-effective in avariety of buildings. CHP capacity in buildingshas doubled within the last decade and there arenow over 1,000 installations providing around400 MW
(electrical output). Due to the smallernature of the installations, only around 10% oftotal CHP capacity is in buildings and communityheating but buildings constitute around 90% ofthe total number of CHP installations, theremainder being industrial. Small scale CHP isused as the prime source of heating and powerin many hospitals, hotels and leisure centres,and examples are also found in universities,residential buildings and defence establishments.Large-scale CHP installations are being used withcommunity heating schemes and on somemulti-building sites such as major hospitals,prisons, airports and universities.Under the Kyoto protocol, the UK government iscommitted to reducing greenhouse gas emissionsto 12.5% below 1990 levels by the year 2010, andhas set a more stringent internal target to reduceCO
emissions by 20% by 2010. The governmenthas therefore set a target to encourage theinstallation of 10,000 MW
of Good Quality CHPby 2010 which could produce around 20% of theKyoto carbon savings target. The energy savingand environmental benefits of CHP are so clearand important that the government is activelyencouraging the use of this technology througha number of key incentives available to schemescertified by the CHP Quality Assuranceprogramme (CHPQA), see overleaf.
Purpose of this guide
This guide contains information on the design,selection, installation and operation of CHPin buildings. The guide will be of interest tobuilding services engineers designing newbuildings, refurbishing/upgrading existingbuildings or in developing a site energy strategy.It may also be useful to building operators andenergy managers intending to specify CHP orthose running existing plant.The guide explains what CHP is, discusses theavailable technologies and their application inbuildings. It then focuses on project appraisalas the feasibility study underpins the futureeconomics of the plant. A series of case studies isshown throughout the guide covering a range oftechnologies, applications and financing options.
Throughout the guide reference is made to CHP schemes and units. For the purposes of the guide, a CHP scheme mayconsist of one or more CHP units. MWemeans electrical output of the CHP.
Using CHP in a building can:
–Use fuel more efficiently–reduce energy costs–minimise environmental emissions–improve security of electricity supply.In the right application, CHP is the singlebiggest measure for reducing buildingsrelated CO
emissions and running costs