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Published by Tom Bayubs-tucs

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Published by: Tom Bayubs-tucs on Jul 01, 2012
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Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer of the lymphoid tissue, which includes the lymph nodes,spleen, and other organs of the immune system.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
White blood cells called lymphocytes are found in lymph tissues. They help prevent infections.Most lymphomas start in a type of white blood cells called B lymphocytes, or B cells.For most patients, the cause of this cancer is unknown. However, lymphomas may develop inpeople with weakened immune systems. For example, the risk of lymphoma increases after anorgan transplant or in people with HIV infection.There are many different types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is grouped according tohow fast the cancer spreads.
The cancer may be low grade (slow growing), intermediate grade, or high grade (fastgrowing). Burkitt's lymphoma is an example of a high-grade lymphoma. Follicularlymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma
The cancer is further grouped by how the cells look under the microscope, for example, if there are certain proteins or genetic markers present.According to the American Cancer Society, a person has a 1 in 50 chance of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. NHL most often affects adults. However, children can get some forms of lymphoma. You are more likely to get lymphoma if you have a weakened immune system orhave had an organ transplant.This type of cancer is slightly more common in men than in women.
Symptoms depend on what area of the body is affected by the cancer and how fast the cancer isgrowing.Symptoms may include:
Night sweats (soaking the bedsheets and pajamas even though the room temperature isnot too hot)
Feverand chills that come and go
Swollen lymph nodesin the neck, underarms, groin, or other areas
Weight lossCoughing or shortness of breath may occur if the cancer affects the thymus gland or lymph nodesin the chest, which may put pressure on the windpipe (trachea) or other airways.
Some patients may have abdominal pain or swelling, which may lead to a loss of appetite,constipation, nausea, and vomiting.If the cancer affects cells in the brain, the person may have a headache, concentration problems,personality changes, or seizures.
Signs and tests
The doctor will perform a physical exam and check body areas with lymph nodes to feel if theyare swollen.The disease may be diagnosed after:
Biopsy of suspected tissue, usually a lymph node biopsy
Bone marrow biopsyOther tests that may be done include:
Blood test to check protein levels, liver function, kidney function, and uric acid level
Complete blood count (CBC)
CT scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis
Gallium scan
PET (positron emission tomography) scanIf tests reveal you do have cancer, additional tests will be done to see if it has spread. This iscalled staging. Staging helps guide future treatment and follow-up and gives you some idea of what to expect in the future.
Treatment depends on:
The type of lymphoma
The stage of the cancer when you are first diagnosed
Your age and overall health
Symptoms, including weight loss, fever, and night sweatsCommon treatments:
Radiation therapy may be used for disease that is confined to one body area.
Chemotherapy is the main type of treatment. Most often,multiple different drugs are usedin combination together.
Another drug, called rituximab (Rituxan), is often used to treat B-cell non-Hodgkin'slymphoma.
Radioimmunotherapy may be used in some cases. This involves linking a radioactive substanceto an antibody that targets the cancerous cells and injecting the substance into the body.People with lymphoma that returns after treatment or does not respond to treatment may receivehigh-dose chemotherapy followed by a bone marrow transplant (using stem cells from yourself).Additional treatments depend on other symptoms. They may include:
Transfusion of blood products, such as platelets or red blood cells
Antibiotics to fight infection, especially if a fever occursDuring treatment, you and your health care team may need to manage other concerns. See also:
Being at home during chemotherapy
Support Groups
The stress of illness may be eased by joining a support group whose members share commonexperiences and problems.
Expectations (prognosis)
Low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma usually cannot be cured by chemotherapy alone. However,the low-grade form of this cancer progresses slowly, and it may take many years before thedisease gets worse or even requires any treatment.Chemotherapy can often cure many types of high-grade lymphoma. However, if the cancer doesnot respond to chemotherapy drugs, the disease can cause rapid death.
Side effects of chemotherapy drugs
Also called: Glioma, Meningioma
Quick Facts
- Brain tumors are the second
leading cause of cancer death among children and young adults.1
 - Each year in the United States, more than 35,000 people are told they have a tumor that startedin the brain.

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