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Unit 28

Unit 28

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Published by Puspesh Giri
all about pressure groups
all about pressure groups

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Published by: Puspesh Giri on Jul 01, 2012
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UNIT28PRESSUREGROUPSStructure28.0Objectives28.1IntroductionI28.2PressureGroups:MeaningI28.2.1PressureGroupsandPoliticalParties28.2.2PressureGroupsandLobbying28.3CharacteristicsofPressureGroups28.4TypesofPressureGroups28.5NatureofPressureGroupsinIndia28.6MethodsofOperationofPressureGroupsinIndia28.7LimitationsofPressureGroups28.8ConcludingObservations28.9LetUsSumUp28.10KeyWords28.11ReferencesandFurtherReadings28.12AnswerstoCheckYourProgressExercises28.0OBJECTIVESAfterstudyingthisUnit,youshouldbeableto:ExplainthemeaningandcharacteristicsofpressuregroupsinIndia;Discussthevarioustypesofpressuregroupsexistinginthecountry;Throwlighttheproblemsfacedbythepressuregroups;and,Highlighttheneedfortheireffectivefunctioning.t28.1INTRODUCTIONPressuregroupshavebecomeaveryimportantpartofanadministrativesystem.Thesegroupstrytopressurisetheadministrativeandpoliticalsystemofacountryeithertoensurethattheirinterestsarepromotedortoseethatatleasttheirinterestsarenotrelegatedtothebackground.Nosystemcanfunctioneffectivelywithouttakingtheirviewpointintoconsideration.IndevelopingcountrieslikeIndiawherethereisascarcityofvariousresourcesontheonehandandacutepovertyanddeprivationontheother,thepressureonadministrativesystemisboundtobeveryheavy.Thepressuregroupsariseindifferentformsindifferentwalksoflife.Theyprovideastabilisingmechanismandformacrucialcomponentofthestructuralequilibriumwhichmeansthattheyperformthesystemmaintenancefunction.Therecanbeanothersideofthephenomenonwherethepressureonthesystemmayreachabreakdownpoint.Thus,thequestionslikehowthepressuregroupsareformed,howdotheyoperateandwhatmechanismsthesystemadoptstocopewiththepressuresbecomeimportantissuesconfrontingtheadministrationofanycountry.ThisUnittiestogiveusaclearpictureregardingthefunctioningofpressuregroupsinIndia.28.2PRESSUREGROUPS:MEANINGPressuregroupsareformsoforganisations,whichexertpressureonthepolitica
 
loradministrativesystemofacountrytoextractbenefitsoutofitandtoadvance
 
EmergingIssuestheirowninterests.Inthepresentcontesttheseformsoforganisationsarebroadlyreferredtoa$CivilSocietyOrganisations(CSO).Inthisunitweshallbeexaminingtheirroleaspressuregroups.Theterm'pressuregroup'referstoanyinterestgroupwhosemembersbecauseoftheirsharedcomtnonattributesmakeclaimsontheothergroupsandonthepoliticalprocess.Theypursuetheirinterestsbyorganisingthemselvesandbyinfluencingthegovernmentalpolicies.Theiraimistoseethatlawsorgovernment'sactionsarefavourabletotheirinterests.Pressuregroupshavebeeninexistenceindifferentformseversincegovernmentalmachinerybecamecapableofdeliveringcertainbenefitstoeitherindividualsorgroups.Theydidtakemoreconcreteforminthewakeofindustrialrevolutionandtheriseofmarketorientedeconomies.Theemergenceoftrustsandmonopoliesandthestruggleovertariffsledtotheformationofpressuregroups.Withtheadvancementoftechnologyandagriculturalskillsnewproblems,desiresandneedsaroseandthereforenewgroupsandorganisationscameintobeingtoadvancetheircommoninterests.Stateassumedvariouswelfarefunctionsinadditiontoitsearlierregulatoryactivities.AllthisentrustedconsiderablepoweranddiscretioninthehandsofstateapparatusandtheneedtoexertmorepressureontheStatebecamestronger.ThedominantsectionsofthesocietyneededthehelpoftheStateinpromotionoftheeconomicactivitiesandtheweakandthedeprivedneededitshelpformeetingtheirbasicrequirements.Toarticulatetheirinterests,andexertpressureontheStateapparatusthesegroupsgainedprominence.Pressuregroupsinmobilisingandorganisingmasseshavewidenedthebaseofpoliticalparticipationaswellascreatingaresponsivepoliticalandadministrativesystem.Theyhelpinsocialintegration,politicalarticulationandactascatalystsforchange.Finerhascharacterisedpressuregroupsas'anonymousempire'.RichardD.Lambertviewsitasunofficialgovernment.Thesegroupsinfluencebothpublicpolicyaswellasadministration.Theyalsocontributetowardsdeterminationofpoliticalstructureofsocietyandtheformofgovernment.Anysocialgroupwhichseekstoinfluencethe,behaviourofanypoliticalofficer,bothadministrativeaswellaslegislative,withoutattemptingtogainformalcontrolofthegovernmentcanbecalledapressuregroup.28.2.1PressureGroupsandPoliticalPartiesPressuregroupshavetobedifferentiatedfrompoliticalparties.Politicalparties,inthestrictsenseoftheterm,areassociationsofindividualssharingcommonvaluesandpreferences.Theyareorganisedonideologicallinesandpresentavisionforthefuture.Theyhavewelltrainedcadreswhoareengagedincontinuouspoliticalmobilisationofthemasses!Theyuseallthepoliticalmeansavailabletocapturethepowerandconsolidatetheirpositiontoattainorrealisetheirideologicalgoals.Ina

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