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Manual Valve Lecture Notes

Manual Valve Lecture Notes

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Published by M J Rhoades

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Published by: M J Rhoades on Jul 01, 2012
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10/27/2014

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Unit 4
Mechanical Science ; manual valves and dampers
 
Introduction:
This unit introduces some fundamental concepts and use of manual valves and dampers including the theory,operation, principles, construction and application of these components
.
Unit Objectives:
Desired outcome:Basic component knowledge (BCK), describe basic construction, application, and operation of basic plantcomponents listed.Power plant fundamentals
(PPF),
explain the principles associated with manual valves and describe thefollowing.Enabling statements:* Manual valves (such as gate, globe, butterfly, ball, check, needle, diaphragm-operated, plug, pressure relief,and safety) BCK & PPF.a. Limitations of the different types of valves (BCK0b. Types (BCK & PPF)c. Components (such as handle, stem, packing gland, valve disk, valve bodyand valve seat) (PPF)d. Failure mechanisms and symptoms (such as thermal binding, leakage,and difficult to operate) (PPF)f. Function (isolation, throttling, relief, draining, and venting) (PPF)g. Operating characteristics (such as valve application) (PPF & BCK)h. Position indication (such as local, remote, and process parameters) (PPF) * Dampers(pneumatic, hydraulic, fire, and ventilation). (BCK) 
Note:
The content of this course is the property of Bismarck State College and is protected by copyright law. Bismarck State College gives visitors and students permission to copy documents from this course for study purposes only. Distribution or retrieval for commercial use is strictly prohibited without prior written permission from Bismarck State College. © Bismarck State College
 
 
Manual valves: 
Manual valves are used throughout the nuclear plant on virtually all systems and some test equipment. Theycome in many different types and sizes to suit the particular application. Knowledge of these plant components isrequired in order to perform your job in almost all positions of employment in the physical plant. In order for thestudent to understand the discussion of manual valves, it would be good to know the definitions of the words wewill be using throughout this unit.
Definitions:
Valve:
A valve is a mechanical device that controls the flow of fluid and pressure within a system or  process. A valve controls system or process fluid flow and pressure by performing any of the followingfunctions:
Stopping and starting fluid flow
Varying (throttling) the amount of fluid flowControlling the direction of fluid flow
Regulating downstream system or process pressure
Relieving component or piping over pressure
Define the following terms as they relate to valves:
Disc
Seat/backseat
Throttle
Actuator 
Bonnet
Packing gland
Stem
seat
Manual operation
Valve body
o
Disc: for a valve having a bonnet, the disc is the third primary principal pressure boundary. Thedisc provides the capability for permitting and prohibiting fluid flow. With the disc closed, fullsystem pressure is applied across the disc if the outlet side is depressurized. For this reason, the discis a pressure-retaining part. Discs are typically forged, and in some designs, hard-surfaced to providegood wear characteristics. A fine surface finish of the seating area of a disc is necessary for goodsealing when the valve is closed. Most valves are named, in part, according to the design of their discs.
o
Seat/Backseat: the seat or seal rings provide the seating surface for the disc. In some designs, the bodyis machined to serve as the seating surface, and seal rings are not used. In other designs, forged sealrings are threaded or welded to the body to provide the seating surface. To improve the wear resistance of theseal rings, the surface is often hard faced by welding and then, machining the contact surface of the seal ring.A fine surface finish of the seating area is necessary for good sealing when the valve is closed. Seal rings are
 
o
Throttle: the term “throttle” indicates the ability to control flow. Some valves arespecifically made to perform this task; other valves demonstrate poor characteristics inthrottling or controlling flow in a valve.
o
Actuator / Handle: the actuator operates the stem and disk assembly. An actuator may bea manually operated hand wheel, manual lever, motor operator, solenoid operator, pneumatic operator, or hydraulic ram. In some designs, the actuator is supported by the bonnet. In other designs, a yoke mounted to the bonnet supports the actuator. Except focertain hydraulically controlled valves, actuators are outside of the pressure boundary.Yokes, when used, are always outside of the pressure boundary.
o
Bonnet: the cover for the opening in the valve body is the bonnet. In some designs,the body itself is split into two sections that bolt together. Like valve bodies, bonnetsvary in design. Some bonnets function simply as valve covers, while others support valveinternals and accessories such as the stem, disk, and actuator.The bonnet is the second principal pressure boundary of a valve. It is cast or forgedof the same material as the body and is connected to the body by a threaded, bolted, or welded joint. In all cases, the attachment of the bonnet to the body is considered a pressure boundary. This means that the weld joint or bolts that connect the bonnet tothe body are pressure-retaining parts. Valve bonnets, although a necessity for mostvalves, represent a cause for concern. Bonnets can complicate the manufacture of valves, increase valve size, represent a significant cost portion of valve cost, and are asource for potential leakage.
o
Packing gland: most valves use some form of packing to prevent leakage from the space between the stem and the bonnet. Packing is commonly a fibrous material (such as flax) or another compound (such as Teflon) that forms a seal between the internal parts of a valveand the outside where the stem extends through the body. Valve packing must be properlycompressed to prevent fluid loss and damage to the valve’s stem. If a valve’s packing istoo loose, the valve will leak, which is a safety hazard. If the packing is too tight, it willimpair the movement and possibly damage the stem.not usually considered pressure boundary parts because the body has sufficient wall thickness to withstanddesign pressure without relying upon the thickness of the seal rings.
o
Manual:
 
manual actuators are capable of placing the valve in any position, but do not permitautomatic operation. The most common type of mechanical actuator is the hand wheel. This typeincludes hand wheels fixed to the stem, hammer hand wheels, and hand wheels connected to the stemthrough gears.
o
Stem: the rod by means of which the disk or plug is moved to open and close a valve.
o
Valve body: this is the main casing which contains the seat, maintains the pressure boundary aroundthe internal components. it allows for the hook up to piping and the bonnet bolts to it.

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