161. Louis Althusser, For Marx (New York: Vintage Books, 1970), p. 251: “Generalities I areabstract, part-ideological, part-scientic generalities that are the raw material o science... “162. Ernest Gellner, “Foreword,” in J. G. Merquoir, The Veil and the Mask: Essays on Cultureand Ideology (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), p. 2.163. Merquoir, op. cit., p. 29.164. Those conused about the distinction inhering between reorm and revolution might wishto consult John and Barbara Ehrenreich’s “From Resistance to Revolution,” Monthly Review(April 1968). Another useul perspective can be ound in the section entitled “Rebellion andRevolution,” in George Katsiacas’ The Imagination o the New Let: A Global Analysis o1968 (Boston: South End Press, 1987), pp. 179-86.165. Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael), speech at the Auraria Campus Student Center, Den-ver, Colorado, 24 Nov. 1985 (tape on le).166. Put another way, it is simply to gain a dierent sort o appreciation o Karl von Claus-witz’s amous dictum that war is merely politics pursued by other means. Conversely, politicswould be war pursued in the same manner.167. The same principle, o course, is inversely applicable to those who would insist thatarmed struggle/terror is the “only appropriate means” o conronting state power under ad-vanced capitalism. However, the scant number o those proessing such a belie in the UnitedStates — especially as opposed to the numbers o people advocating nonviolence as anabsolute - tends to speak or itsel in terms o the emphasis accorded each problem in thisessay.168. See Nicos Poulantzas, Fascism and Dictatorship: The Third International and the Prob-lem o Fascism (London: Verso, 1979), especially “Forms o the Ideological Crisis: The Crisiso Revolutionary Organizations,” pp. 143-46. Outcomes are posited, however unintendedly, inBertram Gross, Friendly Fascism: The Face o Power in America (Boston: South End Press,1982).169. The term is employed within its precise rather than its popularized meaning, i.e., rom theGreek radic, meaning “source” or “root.” The radical therapist is one who pursues problemsto their root or source. The psychological analysis and approach taken is that sketched outin Jerome Angel, ed., The Radical Therapist (New York: Ballantine, 1971), and Rough Times(New York: Ballantine, 1973).170. This requirement may well lead to the application o a variation o the principle positedby Frank Black Elk in his “Observations on Marxism and the Lakota Tradition,” in Marxism andNative Americans, Ward Churchill, ed. (Boston: South End Press, 1983), pp. 137-56; peoplewho are not typically considered as therapists - and who may well not even perceive them-selves as such - will be needed to provide therapy to many sel-proclaimed radical therapistsbeore the latter can hope to extend assistance to others.171. A quick sample o some o the best: Kurt Saxon, The Poor Man’s James Bond (Eureka,Caliornia: Atlan Formularies, 1975); Lt. Col. Anthony B. Herbert, The Soldier’s Handbook(Englewood, Caliornia: Cloverlea Books, 1979); William Ewart Fairburn, Scientic Sel-Deense (San Francisco: Interservice, 1982); and Tony Lesce and Jo-Anne Lesce, Checklist
It is the obligation o every person who claims to oppose oppressionto resist the oppressor by every means at his or her disposal. Not toengage in physical resistance, armed resistance to oppression, is toserve the interests o the oppressor; no more, no less. There are noexceptions to the rule, no easy out...
- Assata Shakur, 1984Pacism, the ideology o nonviolent political action, has become axi-omatic and all but universal among the more progressive elements ocontemporary mainstream North America. With a jargon ranging roma peculiar mishmash o borrowed or abricated pseudospiritualism to“Gramscian” notions o pregurative socialization, pacism appearsas the common denominator linking otherwise disparate “white dis-sident” groupings. Always, it promises that the harsh realities o statepower can be transcended via good eelings and purity o purposerather than by sel-deense and resort to combat.Pacists, with seemingly endless repetition, pronounce that the nega-tivity o the modern corporate-ascist state will atrophy through deec-tion and neglect once there is a suciently positive social vision totake its place (“What i they gave a war and nobody came?”). Knownin the Middle Ages as alchemy, such insistence on the repetition oinsubstantial themes and ailed experiments to obtain a desired resulthas long been consigned to the realm o antasy, discarded by all butthe most wishul or cynical (who use it to manipulate people).I don’t deny the obviously admirable emotional content o the pacistperspective. Surely we can all agree that the world should become aplace o cooperation, peace, and harmony. Indeed, it would be nicei everything would just get better while nobody got hurt, includingthe oppressor who (temporarily and misguidedly) makes everythingbad. Emotional niceties, however, do not render a viable politics. Aswith most delusions designed to avoid rather than conront unpleas-ant truths (Lenin’s premise that the sort o state he created wouldwither away under “correct conditions” comes to mind), the pacistantasy is inevitably doomed to ailure by circumstance.