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Ahlberg_Nat373_1995_6

Ahlberg_Nat373_1995_6

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LETTERSTONATURE
a
c
TQ.s
d
FIG.3Cross-sectionsatvariousscales(noverticalexaggeration)show-ingthosenorth-dippingreversefaultsthatoccurattherangefront(a,b)andthosethathaveupliftedfootwallsbecausetheyareunderlainbysouth-dippingblindthrusts(c,
d).
ComparewithSantaSusanafaultinFig.2.TQs,Pleistocenestrata.Sources:a,b,(ref.13);c,(ref.17);
d,
(ref.1S).
ExamplesaretheSanCayetanofaulteastoftheOjaiValleyandeastofFillmore(Fig.
3a)
andtheSantaSusanafaultnorthoftheSylmarbasin(Fig.
3b).
Wherenorth-dippingfaultsareunderlainbysouth-dippingblindthrusts,andbothareactive,boththehangingwallandfootwallareuplifted.ExamplesaretheRedMountainfaultunderlainbythePadreJuanblindthrust(Fig.
3C)14
andthecentralSanCayetanofaultunderlainbytheSisar-Lionfaultsystem(Fig.
3d)15.
ThefootwalloftheSantaSusanafault,raisedduringthe1994earthquake
1,
hasbeenupliftedsincethelatePleistocenealongtheentirelengthoftheSantaSusanaMountains(Fig.I),evi-denceofanunderlyingsouth-dippingblindthrust.(Anorth-dippingreversefaultbeneaththeSantaSusanafaultmightalsoupliftthefootwalloftheSantaSusanafault,butthispossibilityisunlikely,basedonthepresenceofthesouth-dippingFrewfaultalongtheentirelengthoftheSantaSusanafaultbeneaththeSantaSusanaMountains.)Footwalluplift,togetherwiththethickPliocene-PleistocenesequencesintheeastVenturabasin(Fig.2)andSylmarbasin,incontrastwiththethinsequencesofthisagefarthersouth,couldhaveledinvestigatorstoasouth-dippingsourcebeforetheearthquake.However,itwouldnothaveledtoalong-rangeforecastofalargeearthquakealongthisfaultforreasonsoutlinedbelow.Thetopographicexpressionofthesouth-dippingfaultintheSanFernandoValleynortheastoftheepicentreismuchlessthanitisintheSantaSusanaMountains.Indeed,theonlytopo-graphicfeatureintheSanFernandoValleythatcouldbeattri-butedtoupliftalongthesouth-dippingfaultistheMissionHillssouthoftheSylmarbasin,andthiscouldequallywellberelatedtodisplacementonthenorth-dippingGranadaHills-MissionHillsfault".ThesliprateontheOakRidgefaultmaydecreaseeastwardfromtheVenturabasin,wherethefaultreachesthesurface,totheSantaSusanaMountainsandSanFernandoVal-ley,whereitdoesnot.Sliprateonthesouth-dippingblindthrustbeneaththeSantaSusanaMountainsisestimatedas1.4-
1.
7mmyr
-I
basedonabalancedcross-sectionmodellingtheeastVenturabasinandSantaSusanaMountainsasafault-propagationfoldcontrolledbytheblindthrust",Thiscompareswith5mmyr-
I
ontheOakRidgefaultintheVenturabasin.ThestronggravitygradientthatmarksthefaultdiesouteastoftheSylmar
basin",
raisingthepossibilitythatthesouth-dippingblindthrustdiesoutalso.
420
TheNorthridgeearthquake,then,occurredintheleastlikelypartoftheOakRidgefaultsystembecauseitslong-termsliprateisaboutone-thirdoftheratefartherwest.Eastofthe1994rupture,thesouth-dippingfaultsystemmaydieoutandnotconstituteaseismicsourceatall.However,thereisamajordangerofarupturesimilartothatof1994,ontheOakRidgefaulttothewestintheVenturabasin,wherethefaulthasaslipratenearlythreetimeshigherthanitisintheSanFernandoValley.Wehaveshownthatfootwallupliftcharacterizesthreeactivenorth-dippingfaultsunderlainbyblindthrustsdippingintheoppositedirection,andthatotheractivefaultsnotunderlainbyblindthrustsoccuratmountainfrontsanddonothaveupliftedfootwalls.AsearchforfootwallupliftelsewhereinCaliforniaandinotherregionswithactivereversefaultsshouldrevealotherblindthrustssimilartotheseismicsourceoftheNorthridgeearthquake.0
Received
17
February;accepted
13
December
1994.
1.ScientistsoftheU.S.GeologicalSurveyandtheSouthernCaliforniaEarthquakeCenter
Science
266,389-397(1994).2.
Yeats.
R.
S.
J.geophys.Res.
93,12137-12149(1988).3.
Yeats.R.S.
Nature
388,299-301(1993).4.
Davis,T.L.&Namson,
J.
S.
Nature
372,167-169(1994).5.
Donnellan,A.,Hager,B.H.&King,
R.
W.
Nature
388,333-336(1993).6.
Donnellan,A.,Hager,B.H.,King,R.W.&Herring,T.A.
J.geophys.Res.
98,21727-21739(1993).
7.Langenheim,V.E.,Griscom,A.
&
Jachens,R.C.
89th
A.Mtg
Seismol.
Soc.Am.,
ProgramforNorthridgeAbstracts,
abstr.
42(1994).8.
Yeats,R.S.USGeol.
Surv.prof.Pap.
1339,137-160(1987).
9.Yeats,R.S.in
CenozoicBasinDevelopment
of
CoastalCalifornia:Rubey
Vol.VI(edsIngersoll,R.V.&Ernst,W.G.)
284-298
(Prentice-Hall,EnglewoodCliffs,NewJersey,
1987).10.
Stein,R.S.&Yeats,R.S.
Scient.
Am.
280(6),48-57(1989).11.
Okamura,Y.,Satoh,M.
&
Miyazaki,
J.1.
seismol.
Soc.
Japan2ndSer.
(inJapanese)48,
413-423(1994).12.
Platker,G.&Ward,S.N.
Tectonics
11,
709-718(1992).13.
Yeats,R.S.,Hultile,G.
J.
&Stitt,L.T.
8uff.
Am.
Ass.Petrol.
Geol.
78,1040-1074(1994).14.
Yeats,
R.
S.
&
Grigsby,F.B.Geol.Soc.Am.
CentennialFieldGuide
1,
219-223(1987).15.
Hultile,G.J.
Buff.
Am.
Ass.Petrol.
Geol.
75,1353-1373(1991).
16.Shields,K.E.thesis,OhioUniv.,Athens(1977).
17.
Huftile,G.J.&Yeats,
R.
S.
J.geophys.Res.
(inthepress).ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.Wethankthepetroleumindustry
tor
thedatasetthatmadethisstudypossible.ThisresearchwassupportedbytheEarthquakeHazardsReductionProgramoftheUSGeologicalSurveyandtheSouthernCaliforniaEarthquakeCenter.
Elg;nerpetonpanchen;
andtheearliesttetrapodclade
PerE.Ahlberg
DepartmentofPalaeontology,NaturalHistoryMuseum,CromwellRoad,LondonSW7SBD,
UK
THEfirst'tetrapod-like'bonesfromtheScottishUpperDevoniansiteofScatCraig(ScatCraigbeds,UpperFrasnian)werefiguredanddiscussedin1991(ref.1).Additionalspecimenshavesincebeendiscoveredthatpermitaformaldescription,andthebackgroundknowledgeofDevoniantetrapodanatomyhasgreatlytmproved'r".ThesediscoveriesemphasizetheuniquenessandphylogeneticimportanceoftheScatCraigmaterial.
Elginerpetonpancheni
gen.etsp.nov.,describedhereonthebasisofcranialremainsfromScatCraig,is,togetherwiththefragmentarygenus
Obruchevich-thys
fromtheUpperFrasnianofLatviaandRussia
l,8,9,
theoldestknownstemtetrapod.
Elginerpeton
and
Obruchevichthys
formacladethatisthesistergroupofallotherTetrapoda.ThiscontrastswiththelaterDevonianstemtetrapods,whichallseemtorepresentseparateplesions.
Elginerpeton
alsohasaunique,derivedheadmorphology;itshowsthattheearliestphaseoftetrapodevolutionwasaccompaniedbypreviouslyunrecognizedmorphologicalandphylogeneticdiversification.
NATURE·VOL373.2FEBRUARY1995
 
LETTERSTONATURE
FIG.1
a,
b,RMSG1967.17.1,holotypeof
Eiginerpetonpancheni,
anincompleterightmandible.Stereopairphotographsina,dorsal,andb,ventrolateralviews.Scalebar,50mm.
SuperclassTetrapoda,Goodrich,1930
Remark.
Thegroupistraditionallydefinedbythepossessionoflimbs"
12.
However,therearealsoderivedcranialtetrapodcharacters':",
Elginerpeton
isassignedtotheTetrapodaoncran-ialcharacters,butassociatedtetrapodlimbelementsprobablyalsobelongtothegenus.PlesionElginerpetontidae,nov.
Diagnosis.
Thisplesioncontainsthegenera
Elginerpeton
and
Obruchevichthys.
It
ischaracterizedbythefollowingautapo-morphies:thedentaryandanteriorinfradentariesareswollen;thesplenialandpostsplenialareintimatelyfused;andadeepfurrowmarksthedentary-infradentarysuture.Aderived,nar-rowanddorsallyplacedprearticularisprobablyalsocharacter-
rstic
fortheElginerpetontidae,buttheconditionin
Obruchevichthys
isnotentirelyclear(Fig.
2e).
UnlikeallotherTetrapoda,theElginerpetontidaeretainfangsontheanteriorcoronoidwhichareseparatefromthetoothrow(Figs2/,
4a-c).Elginerpeton
gen.nov.
Typespecies.
Elginerpetonpancheni
sp.nov.
DiagnosiS.
Thegenuscanberecognizedasastem-grouptetra-podbythepossessionofafangpairandtoothrowonthe
NATURE·VOL373.2FEBRUARY
1995
parasymphysialplate;apairofconspicuousforaminalateralandmesialtotheposteriorpartofthisplate;absenceofexposedMeckelianbonedorsaltotheprearticular;andirregular,radiat-ingornamentonthepremaxillaandinfradentaries.Noneofthesederivedcharactersarefoundinnon-tetrapodsarcopterygians':",buttheyoccurwithminorvariationsinallknownDevoniantetrapods":":".Mostaresecondarilylostinthecrowngroup,
Elginerpeton
differsfromallotherknownDevoniantetrapodsinhavingroundedventralinfradcntarymar-ginsandanaccessorytoothrowonthedentary.
Elginerpeton
and
Obruchevichthys
shareseveralsynapomorphies,whicharedefiningcharactersofthePlesionElginerpetontidae(seeabove),
Elginerpetonpancheni
sp.nov,
Polyplocodus
Pander;Miles1968,8(ref15),'Tetrapod-likemandibularfragments';Ahlberg1991,298(ref1),'ScatCraigtetrapod';Ahlberg,LuksevicsandLebedev1994,306(ref6),
Etymology.
GenericnameafterthetownofElginandGreek
herpeton,
crawling.SpecificnameinhonourofAlec
L.
Panchen,inrecognitionofhisimportantcontributionstothestudyofearlytetrapods,
421
 
LETTERSTONATURE
accessoryteeth
FIG.2a,b,RMSG1967.17.1,holo-typeof
Eiginerpetonpancheni,
inventrolateralanddorsalviews.Notefurrowbetweendentaryandinfra-dentaries,laterallinepores(Iat.linepores),smallfangpair(cor.fangs)ontheanteriorcoronoid,accessorytoothrowondentary,andlargelateralparasymphysialforamen(lat.psymJor).c.
d,
reconstructionofthemandibleof
Eiginerpeton
inlat-eralandmesialviews.Bracketsindi-catepartsofthejawpreservedindifferentspecimens.NotebroadexposureofMeckelianboneventraltothenarrowprearticular.Thisisaderivedpattern.
e--g,Obruchevich-thysgracilis.
e,
t,
PIN1491/51,hol-otype,Latvia,apartialmandibleinmesialanddorsalviews.Thepreart-icularisnarrow,andthecoronoidtoothrowloopsroundthefangpair(cor.fangs.).
s.
PIN1491/52,StPet-ersburgDistrict,anteriorendofmandible,externalview.Allscalebarsof
a-g
are10mm.Verticalhatching-brokenbone.
h-k,
mandi-bularcross-sectionsof
Eiginerpeton
(RMSG1967.17.1),
Obruchevich-thys
(PIN1491/52),
Ichthyostega
(MGUHfieldno.1618)and
Pander-ichthys
(ref.22),allthroughanteriorpartofanteriorcoronoid.Nottoscale.Stipple,Meckelianbone;black,hollow.
Eiginerpeton
and
Obruchevichthys
shareinflateddentary(de.)andinfradentary(id.)bones.In
Panderichthys,
thecoronoid(cor.)doesnotcontacttheprearticular(pre.).
a
\
lat.linepores
b
,
cor.fangsIat.psyrn.for.MeckelianboneRMSG1967.17.1GSM89174cor.fangs.prearticular
I
-
Holotype.
RMSG1967.17.1,anincompleteleftlowerjawramus.HolotypehousedattheNationalMuseumsofScotland,Edinburgh.
Referredmaterial.
TableIliststhereferredmaterial,whichincludesupperandlowerjawelements.
Locality.
ScatCraigisastreamsideexposureontheLongmornBurnnearFogwattvillagesouthofElgin,Morayshire,Scotland.
Horizon.
ScatCraigBeds,UpperFrasnian,UpperDevonian
'5.
Thesiteyieldspsammosteids'",avertebrategroupthatdiesoutattheFrasnian-Famennian
boundary".
Theageis~368Myr
l7.
Diagnosis.
Asforgenus.Jawmaterialof
Elginerpeton
canberecognizedbyitscharacter-isticdentition.Themoststrikingfeaturesofthelowerjaw(Figs
I,
2a-d)
areitsslenderness,thegrosslyinflatedinfradentarybones(moreextremethanin
Obruchevichthys;
Fig.
2h,
i)
andthebroadexposureofMeckelianboneventraltotheprearticular(Fig.
2c).
Theoveralljawlengthcanbeestimatedto400mm,
422
pre.
nearlytwicethatof
Ventastega
or
Ichthyostega
(Fig.
4d-h).
ThesefeaturesareunparalleledinFamenniantetrapods.Inlargespecimensof
Elginerpeton,
thecoronoidfangsarescarcelylargerthanthemarginalteeth.ThesmalljawBMNHP62809resembles
Obruchevichthys
inhavingproportionatelylargerfangs'.Thismaysuggestnegativeallometryduringgrowth,butasthespeci-menlackssomediagnosticregionsitsattributionto
Elginerpeton
isslightlyuncertain.
Elginerpeton
and
Obruchevichthys
bothhaveacoronoidfangpairthatisseparatefromthetoothrow;thisisaprimitivefeatureunknowninothertetrapods
36,13.14
(FigsI,2/,
4a-c).
Aprobablevomerof
Elginerpeton
(GSM89132)showsacorre-spondingpattern,againuniquelyprimitivewithintheTetra-poda.Thisstronglysuggeststhat
Elginerpeton
and
Obruchevichthys
arethejointsistergrouptoallothertetrapods(Fig.4i).Thepremaxilla(Fig.3)differsinshapefromthoseofotherbasaltetrapods.In
Ichthyostega'",Acanthostega",Ventastega'
NATURE·VOL373.2FEBRUARY1995

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