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12. Islam Et Al.the Agriculturists 10(1) 87-97 (2012)

12. Islam Et Al.the Agriculturists 10(1) 87-97 (2012)

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Published by: Noman Farook on Jul 02, 2012
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05/13/2014

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Effects of Drying Parameters on Dehydration of Green Banana (
 Musa sepientum
) and its Use in Potato (
Solanum tuberosum
) Chips Formulation
M. S. Islam
1
, M. A. Haque
2
and M. N. Islam
1
1
 Department of Food Technology and Rural Industries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
2
 Department of Agro-processing, Bangabandhu Shaikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University,Gazipur-1706, Bangladesh
*
Corresponding author and Email: amdadhstu@yahoo.com
Received: 6 March 2012 Accepted: 26 May 2012
Abstract
The present study quantifies the drying kinetics of green banana during mechanical dehydration. Theeffect of loading density (sample thickness) and the temperature on the drying rate constant and dryingtime were investigated and quantified. Drying rate increased with increasing temperature but decreasedwith increase in loading density. The values of exponent ‘n’ of the two parameters power law modeldescribing the drying rate constant (as a function of thickness) were less than 2 which indicated thepresence of significant external resistance to mass transfer despite the dominance of internal masstransfer resistance. Investigation with three drying air temperatures (55, 60 and 65
o
C) at constant airvelocity (0.6 m/sec) resulted that the increase in drying air temperature increased the drying process.The moisture diffusivity values were 1.25×10
-10
, 1.67×10
-10
and 2.19×10
-10
m
2
 /sec at 55, 60 and 65
o
Crespectively. The activation energy (E
a
) indicating the temperature dependence of the diffusivity was51.21 KJ/mole obtained using Arrhenius model. Mixing of green banana flour in the potato chipsformulation enhanced the fiber and mineral content in the product.
 Keywords:
Drying rate constant, moisture diffusivity, drying kinetics, loading density, activationenergy1.
 
Introduction
The word “banana” is a general term embracinga number of species or hybrids in the genus
 Musa
of the family
 Musaceae.
Bananas andplantains (cultivars of banana having firmer andstarchier fruit) are grown today in every humidtropical region and constitute the second largestfruit crop following the citrus fruits of the world(Haque, 2008). Due to its perishable nature thebanana cannot be preserved more than 7 days atroom temperature (20
o
C) from the initiation of ripening (Farid, 2003). About one fifth of theharvested bananas is spoiled or rejected (Choo,2007).
 
In order to increase the utilization of culled banana, some researchers have suggestedconverting the green banana into flour and starch(Suntharalingam and Ravindran, 1993).Conventional air-drying is the most frequentlyused dehydration operation in food and chemicalindustry and as such preferably used in drying of banana and banana chips. In this case, the dryingkinetic is greatly affected by air conditions (airtemperature, air humidity and air velocity) andmaterial properties (including the characteristicdimension), while other process factors exertnegligible influence (Krokida
et al.
, 2003;
The Agriculturists 10 (1): 87-97 (2012)
ISSN-1729-5211
 
A Scientific Journal of Krishi Foundation
 
Kiranoudis
et al.
, 1997). Hence, optimization of the drying operations must minimize theconsumption of energy and minimize theprocessing effect on the biologic quality of thedried products (Belghit
et al.
, 2000). Theoptimization of drying parameters of mechanicaldryer also leads to the increased production rateof dried products (Ibrahim
et al.
, 2009).Apart from consumption of fresh banana, theycan be processed or semi-processed into varioustasty items such as fruit cups and salads,sandwiches, custards and gelatins etc. Greenbananas are generally consumed as vegetableand banana chips from green banana slices.Despite its nutritional value and economicpotential, banana flour is not listed in thecommon food items produced from banana. It ishardly seen as consumer product in theinternational food market (Haque, 2008). About32% of banana’s total production is harvested asgreen banana (FAO, 2003), which is rich incarbohydrate especially starch (20-25%)(Cordenunsi and Lajolo, 1995),
 
dietary fiberespecially hemi cellulose (6.08%) (Kayisu
et al.
,1981),
 
essential minerals such as potassium,phosphorus and calcium and various vitaminssuch as A, B
1
, B
2
and C (Morton, 1987). Besides,green banana has been found to reduce clinicalseverity of childhood Shigellosis and is useful intreating diarrheal diseases (Rabbani
et al.
, 2009).In the green stage, for having high percentage of starch, banana is suited to be used as the sourceof starch and flour. Green banana flour can be ahealthier replacement of wheat flour and potatoflour. Despite good prospects and healthbenefits, green banana flour has not yet beenfully utilized. The major reasons behind thisunder utilization may be higher cost associatedwith its conversion into flour (compared to otherstarch flours) and limited researches highlightingthe potential and the beneficial properties (Bello-Perez
et al.
, 1999). Hence, the present researchaimed at investigating drying behavior of greenbanana during mechanical dehydration togetherwith assessing applicability of green bananaflour in potato chips formulation.
2.
 
Materials and Methods
 2.1.
 
 Materials and equipments
Good quality green bananas (
 Musa sepientum
),potato powder, starch, wheat powder andsoybean oil were collected from the local market.A cabinet dryer (OV-165, GallenkampCompany) was used for drying of banana slices.The velocity of drying air was kept constant at0.6 m/sec. A temperature range of 55 to 65°Cwas used. Excessively high temperatures werenot used to avoid the possibility of nutrient lossand of case hardening.
 2.2.
 
 Mechanical drying experiment
Loading densities of 4, 6 and 8 kg/m
2
of crushedbanana (corresponding initial thickness were 5,7.5 and 10 mm respectively) were dried at 65
o
Cto determine the effect of loading on the dryingrate. To determine the effect of temperature onthe drying rate, these slabs were dried at threedifferent temperatures (55, 60 and 65
o
C). Theeffect of thickness on drying rate was alsoinvestigated. The change of sample mass overtime was recorded to calculate the drying rateconstants, diffusion coefficients and values of exponent ‘n’ of the two parameters power lawmodel. The temperature dependence of diffusioncoefficient was determined which was used todetermine activation energy for diffusion of water from green banana.
 2.3.
 
 Preparation of green banana flour
After washing in clean water, each banana wascut into 3 to 4 pieces which were then blanchedin boiled water for 5 minutes and peeledmanually. Subsequently, they were sliced into 3mm uniform pieces by a mechanical slicer.These sliced pieces were then dipped into 0.2%KMS solution for 10 minutes to enhance thecolor of the finished product. The slices weredried in a cabinet dryer for about 8 hours at65
o
C. Finally, the banana flour was obtained bygrinding the dried banana pieces in a flour milland packed in polyethylene bags for further use.Precaution was taken carefully to avoid anymixing with other materials during grinding andpackaging.88
 Islam et al./The Agriculturists 10(1): 87-97 (2012)
 
 
 2.4.
 
 Preparation of chips
Five formulations of chips were prepared usingfive different ratios of potato and green bananapowder. The ratios of potato powder and greenbanana powder were 70:30 (Type-111), 60:40(Type-222), 50:50 (Type-333), 40:60 (Type-444), and 30:70 (Type-555). A control samplewithout banana flour was also prepared. In eachformulation of chips, 10% starch and 10% wheatflour were added to impart better crunchinessand crispiness.The measured amounts of potato powder, greenbanana powder, starch and wheat flour weremixed and heated in water for 3 to 5 minutes togelatinize the dough. Thereafter, salt at the rateof 1.5 kg per 100 kg of chips was added in themix (Reddy and Das, 1993). Small amount of spices were added to improve the aesthetic valueof the chips. The entire mix was finally blendedusing a blending machine (B50, GuangzhouChina youjia Machinery Co.) to prepare thedough. Then the dough was spread out on a cleanpolyethylene paper and cut into 30×25×0.5 mmslabs. After drying at 65
o
C for 3 hours theseslabs were fried in good quality soybean oil at165
o
C for 2-3 minutes in order to reduce the finalmoisture content to 2-3% (Lewis
et al.
, 1995).The resultant chips had appealing golden browncolor.
 2.5.
 
Chemical analysis
Moisture, ash, fat, protein, total carbohydrate,crude fiber and vitamin C of the green bananaflour, potato flour as well as chips weredetermined by the methods described byRangana (1992). The calorie values of thesamples were also determined by Bombcalorimeter.
 2.6.
 
 Analysis of the Experimental Data
Fick’s diffusion equations are commonly used todetermine the effective diffusivity of moistureduring food drying (Conway
et al.
, 1983;Kaymak-ertekin and Cakaloz, 1996; Sablani
et al.
, 2000). Hence the Fick’s second law of diffusion was used here to analyse theexperimental data, as given by equation (1).
 M  D M 
e
2
  
(1)Where,M = moisture content (dry basis)t = time (s)
e
 D
= effective diffusion coefficient (m
2
 /s),which describes how fast an objectdiffuses.
= Mass transfer gradientTo find a solution of the above unsteady statediffusion equation for one dimensional moisturetransfer with uniform initial concentration andnegligible external resistance appropriateboundary conditions were assumed. Assumptionincluded the moisture content in the surroundingenvironment (bulk) did not change; there wasnegligible external resistance to moisture transfercompared to internal diffusion resistance. It wasalso assumed that there was negligibletemperature gradient within the sample andnegligible shrinkage during drying. It alsoassumed that the diffusion coefficient wasconstant at a specific temperature. The solution,previously reported by several researchers (Sogi
et al.
, 2003; Roberts
et al.
, 2008)
 
for an infiniteslab with thickness L when dried from one majorface was:
022222
))12( ()12( 18
neeoe
 L Dnen M  M  M  M  MR
  
 .........
(2)
 
Where,
o
 M 
= initial moisture content
 M 
moisture content at time, tM
e
= equilibrium moisture contentn= order of equationFor low
 M 
e
values and for moisture ratioMR<0.6 equation (1) reduced to:
 
 Dehydration of green banana and use in potato chips
89
 

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