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Aluminium Water Hydrogen

Aluminium Water Hydrogen

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Published by: jitendra.paliya on Jul 02, 2012
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11/24/2012

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Reaction of Aluminum with Water to
Produce Hydrogen
A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen
Storage
U.S. Department of EnergyVersion 1.0 -2008
Page 1 of 26
 
 
CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ……………………………………………………………….. 3INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………… 5BACKGROUND ………………………………………………………………………….. 5REACTION-PROMOTING APPROACHES ………………………………………….. 6Hydroxide PromotersOxide PromotersSalt PromotersCombined Oxide and Salt PromotersAluminum PretreatmentMolten Aluminum AlloysPROPERTIES OF THE ALUMINUM-WATER REACTIONS RELATIVE ……….. 14TO ON-BOARD SYSTEM PROPERTIESHydrogen CapacitiesKinetic PropertiesSystem ConsiderationsREGENERATION OF ALUMINUM-WATER REACTION PRODUCTS …………. 17SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………. 19REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………… 20APPENDIX I – THERMODYNAMICS OF ALUMINUM-WATER REACTIONS … 23APPENDIX II – ORGANIZATIONS PRESENTLY INVOLVED WITH ………….. 26HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM ALUMINUM-WATER REACTIONS
Version 1.0 -2008
Page 2 of 26
 
 
Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen
John Petrovic
1
and George Thomas
2
Consultants to the DOE Hydrogen Program
1
Los Alamos National Laboratory (retired)
2
Sandia National Laboratories (retired)
Executive Summary:
The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the production of hydrogen for on-board hydrogen-powered vehicle applications.Although the concept of reacting aluminum metal with water to produce hydrogen is not new,there have been a number of recent claims that such aluminum-water reactions might beemployed to power fuel cell devices for portable applications such as emergency generators andlaptop computers, and might even be considered for possible use as the hydrogen source for fuelcell-powered vehicles.In the vicinity of room temperature, the reaction between aluminum metal and water to formaluminum hydroxide and hydrogen is the following: 2Al + 6H
2
O = 2Al(OH)
3
+ 3H
2
. Thegravimetric hydrogen capacity from this reaction is 3.7 wt.% and the volumetric hydrogencapacity is 46 g H
2
/L.Although this reaction is thermodynamically favorable, it does not proceed due to the presenceof a coherent and adherent layer of aluminum oxide which forms on the surface of aluminum particles which prevents water from coming into direct contact with the aluminum metal. Thekey to inducing and maintaining the reaction of aluminum with water near room temperature isthe continual removal and/or disruption of this coherent/adherent aluminum oxide layer.A number of reaction-promoting approaches have been investigated for the aluminum-water reaction. These include additions of hydroxide promoters such as NaOH, oxide promoters suchas Al
2
O
3
, and salt promoters such as NaCl. These additions act to disrupt the aluminum oxidelayer on the aluminum metal. In addition, the reaction of water with molten aluminum alloyssuch as aluminum-lithium and aluminum-gallium has been studied. In this case, the moltennature of the alloy prevents the development of a coherent and adherent aluminum oxide layer.However, none of these approaches have proven commercially viable to date.The concept of using the aluminum-water reaction to provide onboard hydrogen for hydrogen- powered vehicles presents a number of difficulties. First, storage systems using this approachwill not be able to meet the 2010 DOE system targets of 6 wt.% hydrogen and 45 gramshydrogen per liter. Second, based on published aluminum-water reaction rate kinetics, it appearsVersion 1.0 -2008
Page 3 of 26

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