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319
Transmission And
Receptionofthe Multicarrier
CDMA
Signals
In
the
3rd
Generation Mobile Communication System
Hanna
Bogucka,
IEEE
Member
Abstract-
In the paper the possibility
of
applying theMulti-carrier Code Division Multiple Access
(MC-CDMA)
technique in the 3rd generation mobile cellular communica-tion system
is
analyzed. The key features
of
such
a
systemare described and the basic problems of transmission andreception
of
the MC-CDMA signals are discussed.
I. INTRODUCTIONThe MC-CDMA is
a
novel digital modulation and mul-tiplexing technique. It has been proposed for the indoorwireless communications
[2].
For these systems receptiontechniques have been discussed in
[3].
In
[6]
this mod-ulation/multiplexing scheme has been also proposed forthe multimedia cellular systems, however no receptiontechniques have been analysed. In this paper it will beshown that MC-CDMA is very suitable for the future 3rdgeneration Universal Mobile Telecommunication System(UMTS). One of the demands specified for the UMTS isthe wide range of applications. This calls for covering widerange of bit rates (from several
Mbit/s
for HDTV or WLANto several
kbit/s)
transmitted with various quality (bit er-ror rates)
[l],
6].
As we shall see the MC-CDMA can satisfythis demand in
a
very flexible manner.In Section
I1
the MC-CDMA technique is described andits advantages are discussed in detail. In Section I11 the du-ality of MC-CDMA and the conventional direct sequenceCDMA systems is prooved. In Section IV the main prob-lems of the reception of the MC-CDMA signals are takeninto account. Section
V
contains the considerations on thechanel estimation and equalization. Finally, in Section VIconclusions are derrived.11.
COMBINING
DMA
WITH
OFDM
TECHNIQUE
The MC-CDMA transmitter for
a
single user is showninFigure
1.
The binary data
am(k)
are first multiplied bythe pseudo noise
(PN)
binary seqence
sm(i)
what is calledspreading. The bit duration
T
s much longer then the
PN
sequence chip duration
T,.
For example
N
=
&
may beequal to 128 or higher. After the neccesary encoding (whichhas not been shown openly in Figure 1) the sequence thatcorresponds to one data bit
is
modulated in the bank
of
N
modulators. Another possibility is to map this sequenceinto N/2 complex values, which are then modulated in the
QPSK
modulator with
N/2
ubcarriers. The very efficientway of realizing such
a
modulation scheme is the InverseFast Fourier Transform (IFFT). For the orthogonality ofthe signals at the output of IFFT the distance betweensubcarriers should be equal to the chip rate or
its
multi-ple. This modulation is often called OFDM (Orthogonal
,
H.
Bogucka is with the Institute
of
Electronics and
Communi-
cations, Poznari University
of
Technology,
ul.
Piotrowo
3A,
60-965
Pozn&, Poland.
h(N
-
1)
Fig.
1.
Realization
of
MC-CDMA
in the transmitter ofasingle
user
Frequency Division Multiplex). The guard time or the cir-cular prefix should be introduced for each symbol in orderto combat the transients and the intersymbol interferencecaused by the channel and filters in the system. The cir-cular prefix consists of
p
-
1
repeated samples from theIFFT output (where
p
is the length of the channel im-pulse response or the delay spread measured in samples).At the output of IFFT the pulse shaping filter followed by
a
modulator which shifts the whole spectrum to the de-sirable frequency band can be applied. Another solution
is
to apply the offset IFFT what eliminates the necessity ofthe above mentioned frequency shift. The OFDM-CDMAtransmitter for the base station is presented inFigure
2. 
user
#I
N-
Fig.
2.
MC-CDMA
transmitter for a base station;
CP
-
circular prefix,
P/S
parallel to serial conversion, PSF
-
pulse shaping filter
After spreading chips in the same position in the users’unique
PN
sequences are added.
The
result
of
this
sum-
mation is a composite sequence which then undergoes themulticarrier modulation by the means of IFFT. Every chipin this composite sequence correspods to one frequency bin.The circular prefix
is
attached to every block of
N
samples.
0-7803-3
77-~6/!fi5.ooO 996
IEEE
ICPWC’96
 
Finally, the signal is filtered in
a
pulse shaping filter.
In
thecase described above every chip occupies
one
frequency bin,however it not necessarily
has
to
be
so.
If
a
user
has
thelower chip rate he can use the more appropriate (smaller)number of frequency bins. The remainingcan
be
uti-lized by other users. The IFFT order has to be
at
least
as
high
as
the highest number
of
chips per bit for
a
sin-gle user. Moreover, IFFT order should be high enough
to
ensure that the overhead caused by the circular prefix waspossibly small:
NBp-1
(1)
There is also the upper limit for the block length
N
at
the IFFT output. It will be derrived in Section IV.Figure
2 
shows that spreading by the use of code divisionmultiplexing and multicarrier modulation are the two in-dependent processes in the transmitter. Spreading ensuresthe extraction
of
the information transmitted
to
and fromevery user
at
the receiver. Application of the CDMA tech-nique simplifies the frequency planning in cells. Multicar-rier modulation supports the wide range of bit rates andservice qualities (bit error rates). The later facility can beobtained by applying not equal but the adequate transmis-sion power to every user to fulfil the requirement for hisbit error rate. Furthermore, the spectral efficiency in caseof the OFDM is close to
100
%
and is better than in caseof the conventional Direct Sequence CDMA. Another ad-vantage
of
the MC-CDMA technique applied in the mobilecommunication system is that the information carried byone bit is spread over several subcarriers. If the number ofsubcarriers and the distance between them is properly cho-sen it is unlikely that all
of
them would be located in thedeep fade. Making use
of
the frequency diversity is also typical
for
the conventional Direct Sequence CDMA, howeverthe joint detection and the interference removal is possi-ble only for a very limited number of interfering users. InMC-CDMA this problem can be overcome if the appro-priate IFFT order is applied and only the
users
that arealowed to interfere use the same frequency bins.111.
DUALITY
F
THE
MC-CDMA
AND
DS-CDMA
SYSTEMS
For the simplicity of the considerations let
us
assumethat inFigure
2 
every user utilizes
N
frequency bins thatis every user has the same bit and chip rates. Because
IFFT
and the summation are the linear operations they can beexchanged in their positions
so
that
IFFT
was
performedfirst on every sequence
of
N
chips appearing
at
the output
of
a spreading block. The sequences of swples
at
the out-put of IFFT can be then summed to create the compositesignal. The bit duration measured in chips is
as
long
as
IFFT order. Thus, it acts like a constant which is multi-plied by
N
chips at the input of IFFT. We can thereforeperform IFFT on the
N
chips
of
the
PN
sequence first andthen multiply the result by the current bit. Such
a
struc-ture
of
the base station transmitter
is
shown in Figure
3.
Itis clear that in principle the MC-CDMA system can be
re
garded
as
the conventional Direct Seqence CDMA system
I
1
32
0
1
spreading
-+
o
1
0-
(EFT
on
7
user
#1
PN seqences)
N-1
-
I
i
-l+
spreading
-
0-
IFFT~~
7
user
#x
PN
seqences)
I
-%
N-1N-
PN
sequence
source
(N
chips per
bit)
Fig.
3.
a)
MC-CDMA
transmitter
for
a base station (equivalent struc-ture),
b)
the Structure
of
a spreading block;
s/P
-
serid to pardelconversion
1
I
in which the nonbinary] complex valued
PN
sequences havebeen applied. An important difference between these twomultiplexing/modulation scheems is the envelope of
a
sin-gle user signal. The DS-CDMA ensures the constant enve-lope for
a
single user while MC-CDMA does not. However,
as
the number of users increases this difference vanishes andthere is not
a
constant envelope
of
the composite signal inboth cases. This has an influence on the required dynamics
of
the applied A/D and D/A converters. The application
of
the linear power amplifiers in the MC-CDMA system isalso necessary. This is
a
problem for the considered radiosystem since most mobile radio products are designed withthe very efficient class-C power amplifiers which are highlynonlinear.The duality of the MC-CDMA and DS-CDMA systemsallows to foreseen the similar performance.
'
,
Iv.
BASIC
ROBLEMS
OF
THE
RECEPTION
In the considered system many users can use the samefrequency band (the same subcarriers). They can be dis-tingiushed
by
their
unique
PN
codes.
Obviously,
o
correct
for the effects of the multipath channel the equalization hasto be performed. It can be done after demodulation andbefore despreading. There are various possibilities for theadaptive receiver, the adaptive equalizer and the adaptivediscrete matched filter (ADMF) among them. The latermethod applies adaptive channel estimation tethe chip duration is short enough to resolvepaths we can take advantage
of
the in-band diDSCDMA system a receiver that optimally combines themultipath components
as
part of the decision process isreffered
to
as
a
RAKE
receiver.
To
equalize the received
 
32
1
well solved in this system
[5].
Another problem of the signalreception in case of the uplink transmission is that the sig-nals comming from the different users are not synchronizedin time. In the receiver the possibility of the synchroniza-tion loss in frequency has to be taken into account
as
well.The signal comming from each user suffers from the lossof orthogonality of the subband signals because of the in-terchannel interference (ICI) present in the transmissionchannel. Obviously, IC1 for every user may have differentrange and should be cancelled separately. Thus, the prob-lem of channel estimation for the uplink in the consideredsystem is rather complex.
V.
CONSIDERATIONS
N
EQUALIZATION
As it was previously mentioned in both the uplink anddownlink transmission the channel adaptive equalizer orthe ADMF has to be applied, however in the uplink casefar more channels have to be estimated from the equivalentportion of the received signal
as
compared with the down-link case. Therefore the equalizer for the base station re-ceiver is much more complex and may perform worse thanthe one in the mobile station. In order to calculate theestimate of the rapidly changing channel impulse responseproperly the training sequence has to be employed not onlyat the beginning of the transmisssion but also the periodictransmission of some training bits (like it is in the GSM sys-tem: the midamble in each frame) is necessary. The equal-ization may be based on the inverse filter or on the matchedfilter (ADMF) and it can be realized in the time or in thefrequency domain. The matched filter at the input of thereceiver can be considered
as
the maximal-ratio diversitycombiner for the diversity channel in this sense that themultipath signals (the diversity components) are weightedand summed to compose the one-path, interference-free sig-nal. This method provides the optimum post-demodulation
SNR
for the received signal which is made up of diver-sity components and optimum performance in the availablebandwidth. The estimation of the channel impulse responseis necessary to calculate the above mentioned filter coeffi-cients. This can be done in a few ways. The propositionfor the efficient way to estimate the single user channel
at
the base station is presented inFigure
5.
In this case thechannel estimation is realized in time domain.After despreading and transformation to the time do-main the received sequences are windowed. The size of thiswindow depends on the accepted maximum delay spread.Paths delayed more than this spread (e.g. more than
25
ps)
are neglected. After windowing the values in the sequencesare averaged over
a
certain number of received blocks. Thisnumber is the size
of
store buffer (”storing” block) in Fig-ure
5. 
It should be chosen high enough to ensure the properestimation
of
the channel paths in the presence of severalinterferers (other users using the same frequency bins). Af-ter averaging we obtain the raugh estimation
of
the channelpaths
as
several pulses delayed in time. From thouse pulseswe choose only the highest ones and we neglect the restof them. The highest peaks form the estimate of the chan-nel impulse response. After FFT we obtain
N
values ofsignal the delay and the amplitudes of the channel pathshave to be estimated in case of the noncoherent detection.When the coherent detection is done in the receiver thepath phases have to be estimated
as
well.The basic structure of
the
MC-CDMA
mobile stationreceiver is presented inFigure
4. 
Y
CPR,
sip
0
1
FFT
N-
1
0
1
EQ
N-
1
Fig.
4.
MC-CDMA
receiver for
a
mobile station;
RF
-
receive
fil-
ter,
CPR
-
circular prefix removing,
EQ
-
equalization (adaptiveeqalizer or ADMF)
The receiver for the base station consists of the sameblocks
as
thouse from Figure
4,
however after
FFT
N
val-ues from its output are fed to
2
branches (one branch foreach
user).
An equalizer and despreading block is appliedin every branch to equalize the user’s individual channeland multiply the received signal by the user’s unique
PN
code.Let
us
consider the application of the adaptive equalizer
or
ADMF at the receiver input. It’s coefficients are calcu-lated adaptively according to the adequate algorithm. Forthe correct operation of the applied adaptive filter one hasto assume that during these calculations, that is duringthe duration of the block of
N
samples, the channel char-acteristic remains unchanged. The channel changes dependmost of all (but not only) on the vehicle’s speed. Thus, theduration of a single block must be much smaller than theinverse of the maximum Doppler frequency. Consequentlythe upper limit for the IFFT order applied in the transmit-ter is specified by formula
2.
fc
N<<-
fD
where
fc
is the chip rate and
fD
is the maximum Dopplerfrequency.The problem of the signal reception in the consideredsystem is different for the mobile station receiver (in caseof downlink) and for the base station receiver (uplink). Itis clear that the channel equalization for the downlink ismuch easier than for the Qplink. The mobile receiver is toestimate only one channel from
a
certain portion of the re-ceived signal. In case
of
the uplink
as
many channpls haveto be estimated from the equivalent portion of the signal asthere are users. One should note that the downlink OFDMtransmission will be employed in the Digital Audio Broad-casting (DAB). The problem of the channel estimation is

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