spacing. The outer cylinder serves as stove body and as burner support. The gas burner is wherethe gas generated from the reactor, mixed with preheated air, and is ignited. The fan is attachedto the stove body and is used to supply the air needed for gasification. The primary air entersfrom the bottom end of the reactor with the use of a 12 cm, 15- watt computer fan. Thesecondary air, on the other hand, enters the reactor through 16 holes on top of the stove casinghaving a diameter of 20 mm and is mixed with the gas generated at the small holes located at theupper portion of the burner. Combustible gases are burned in the plate burner consisting of 40and 45 holes at the inner and outer circles, respectively, with 10-mm diameter.
Modified University of California water boiling test (WBT) version 4.12 was used for testing thestove. Burn rate and stove efficiency were determined together with emission factors for carbondioxide (CO
), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrocarbons(HC). Compared tothe three stone fire, the coal stove exhibited a higher burn rate (25.57 g/min (1.534 kg h
)) butlower efficiency. The average computed thermal efficiency of the stove was 18.3%. The CO andCO
emission was in the range 9 ppm to 5480ppm (10.32-6279 mg/m
) and 1700 ppm to 23, 500ppm (3060-42,300 mg/m
), respectively. The coal stove recorded mean CO, CO2, HC and NOemission factors of 1.658, 125.2, 0.197 and 0.236 g kg
, respectively. The emissions andconcentrations of carbon monoxide met an emission standard of a CO: CO2 ratio of <0.02. Thestove works in the range of 1.578 to 18.93 kW of power rating. The coal stove still requires fieldtesting and user evaluation. This limited series of experiment suggests that the coal burning stoveshould be carefully designed, constructed and operated. Domestic use of raw coal is notrecommended until further investigations are carried out.
A larger percentage of the population in Malawi relies on biomass fuels and traditionaltechnologies for cooking and heating. And the burning of biomass fuels in the traditional andinefficient cook-stoves has negative impacts on the health of household members. Therefore, in